Wednesday, November 27, 2019

The Evolution and Potential Eradication of Cyber-crime in the Nigerian Banking Industry, using GTB as a case study. The WritePass Journal

The Evolution and Potential Eradication of Cyber-crime in the Nigerian Banking Industry, using GTB as a case study. Background to Project The Evolution and Potential Eradication of Cyber-crime in the Nigerian Banking Industry, using GTB as a case study. Background to ProjectProblem SpecificationResearch Aims and ObjectivesResearch MethodologyResourcesConstraintsProjected ScheduleReferences Related Background to Project Over the years, the use of information communication technology has had a dramatic impact on almost all areas of human operation including, in particular, the banking and finance sector. To a certain extent, ICT can be seen to have simplified many of the business processes; however, it has also created a new breed of criminal activity, many aspects of which are aimed at the banking sector, for example, credit card fraud, identity theft and ATM fraud, as well as other related information technology issues (Singhal Padhmanabhan, (2008). The proliferation of e-banking has offered opportunities in countries such as Nigeria to become much more global in its operation and yet it has also opened up the jurisdiction to a broad range of cyber-crimes, which will be the focus of the analysis in this research. E-banking is not limited to the more developed countries and, arguably, can be seen to transcend many of the jurisdictional borders, with countries which are developing, such as Nigeria, being able to trade internationally in a way that was not possible, previously. However, this opportunity also presents challenges, particularly when it comes to establishing systems that will prevent or limit cyber-crime. Problem Specification E-banking in Nigeria is still largely seen to be in its infancy, with the majority of banks using information technology as a means of providing information, rather than creating an interactive banking arrangement (Howard et al 2008). To a certain extent, it   could be argued that this relatively low level of take-up for e-banking in Nigeria may be attributed to the insecurity and the failure of the technology to keep pace with the needs of the public, if they are to fully engage with   internet banking and all its ramifications (Chiemeke, Evwiekpaefe, Chete, 2006). Crime and corruption within the banking sectors have created a particular concern for businesses across Nigeria, which indicates that dealing with the area of cyber-crime is critically important and needs to be tackled, if Nigeria is to be able to develop as a strong international economic jurisdiction capable of attracting investment and stability. Research Aims and Objectives The overall aim of this research is to look at the evolution of cyber-crime in Nigeria and to explore ways in which it can potentially be managed, or even eradicated. In order to achieve this over-riding aim, several smaller research objectives have been identified. Firstly, it is necessary to gain an historical understanding of the Nigerian banking industry and to ascertain the ways in which the industry has operated, prior to the use of information technology, and how information technology has impacted upon the banking sector, to date. Secondly, an analysis of the current cyber-crime control processes will be undertaken, looking at a range of different banks and how they look towards managing and controlling cyber-crime (Computer Crime Research Center 2009). The research will then move on to compare banks in other regions, such as the United Kingdom and the United States, with a view to establishing whether there are additional ways in which cyber-crime could be managed more efficiently, by looking at the various different means whereby cyber-crime is managed in these other jurisdictions. The findings can then be looked at in the context of the problems being faced in Nigeria, and potential options explored. A specific case study of GTB will be used, in order to explore the issues raised above, before ultimately suggesting how the Nigerian banking sector can improve its position and reduce the level of cyber-crime, to such an extent that it is likely to improve the stability and trust within the banking sector. GTB in particular has been the subject of much discussion due to several high profile fraudulent activities that have raised the issue of managing cybercrime in Nigeria (Shittu, 2010). Offering this guidance is a critical element of the research as it will offer guidance on how to manage the difficulties being raised by the Nigerian banking industry. Research Methodology The research approach will be inductive in nature in that it will look at a wide variety of ideas and observations with the view to ultimately establishing a theory and a framework that can be relied upon to develop the future of the Nigerian banking industry. In order to achieve this, both quantitative and qualitative analysis will be undertaken. However, this will primarily involve looking at the data associated with cyber-crime, in the region, as part of the secondary research and then going on to undertake a case study, to improve the understanding of where the data has originated from, and in order to bridge between the theory and practical reality of cyber-crime, in the region. Resources Resources will primarily be derived from journals and reports dealing with the area of cyber-crime, in Nigeria, although it will also be necessary to undertake primary research with the employees of the case study bank, i.e. GTB. Suggested references to be used as a starting point are listed at the end of the proposal. Constraints Potential issues may emerge when it comes to collecting accurate data, as issues related to cyber-crime rates can be commercially sensitive, thus making it harder to ensure that the data and the subsequent analysis are accurate. It is also necessary to recognise that issues relating to cyber-crime are likely to change, very rapidly, making the research quite time-specific, in terms of its value. Gaining detailed primary research by interviewing employees may also present a problem, as employees are unlikely to be prepared to speak openly, for fear of any comeback from their employer. Projected Schedule The research will take place over one academic year, which actually spans a total of nine months. It is anticipated that monitoring the case study bank will take the longest period of time and therefore this is central to the timing and is recognised as such in the chart below. M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 M9 Background Research Literature Review Case Study Analysis and Write-up Proofread and Presentation References Adeloye LA (2008). E-banking as new frontiers for banks. Sunday Punch, September 14, P. 25. Chiemeke, S. C., Evwiekpaefe, A. and Chete, F.(2006) The Adoption of Internet Banking in Nigeria: An Empirical Investigation, Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce, Vol. 11, No.3, Computer Crime Research Center 2009. Preventive Measures for ATM frauds. measures-ATMFraud, Howard, R., Thomas, R., Burstein, J., Bradescu, R. (2008). Cyber Fraud Trends and Mitigation, 9–24. Litan, A. (2004). Phising attack victims likely targets for identity theft. Available: Longe, O.B. Chiemeke, S.C. (2008): Cybercrime and Criminality in Nigeria- What roles are internet Access Points in Playing. European Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 6 No 4 Ogunsemor AO (1992.) Banking services: The emergence and impact of electronic banking. The Nigerian Banker, January – March, 1992. Omankhanlen O. (2009). ATM fraud rises: Nigerians groan in Nigeria. Daily News, Sunday, June 21, pp.8-10. Shittu, O., Submitted, P., The, T. O., Of, F., Akintola, L., State, O. Y. O., Fulfilment, I. N. P., et al. (2010). The Impact of Electronic Banking in Nigeria Banking System (Critical Appraisal Of Unity Bank Plc ), 1–62. Singhal, D., Padhmanabhan, V. (2008). A Study on Customer Perception Towards Internet Banking : Identifying Major Contributing Factors, 5(1), pp. 101–111.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

From Argonaut to Internaut

From Argonaut to Internaut From Argonaut to Internaut From Argonaut to Internaut By Maeve Maddox The combining form -naut gives English several words that convey a type of traveler. The Greek word for sailor was ÃŽ ½ÃŽ ±Ã Ãâ€žÃŽ ·Ãâ€š (nautes). Classical Latin mesonauta referred to a sailor â€Å"intermediate in rank between a rower and a steersman.† Classical Latin Argonauta referred to the sailors who traveled with Jason in the Argo (his ship). The earliest â€Å"naut word† in English is the noun Argonaut (1596): one of the legendary heroes who accompanied Jason in the Argo in his quest of the Golden Fleece. Because of their quest for gold, the US â€Å"forty-niners† (gold-seekers who went to California in 1849) were also referred to as argonauts. Here, with the date of their earliest citation in the OED, are some other â€Å"naut words† in English: aeronaut (1784) A person who makes balloon ascents or flies in a balloon, a balloonist. aquanaut (1881) An underwater ‘explorer’ or swimmer. astronaut (1928) A person who travels in space; especially a person who is (or has been) a crewmember on board a spacecraft or on a space mission. cosmonaut (1959) A traveler in outer space; an astronaut (especially a Russian space traveler). cybernaut (1965) A robot (1973) A computer user (1990) A person who interacts with a virtual reality environment using computer technology internaut (1992) A user of the Internet, especially a skilled or habitual one. Note: Internaut first shows on the Ngram Viewer in 1991 and leaps upward from there. In French, the word internaute is the equivalent of â€Å"internet user.† According to Wikipedia, English internaut â€Å"refers to operators or technically highly capable users of the Internet,† but internaut as a one-word option for â€Å"internet user† has its appeal. oceanaut (1962) Another word for aquanaut. If you are wondering why juggernaut is not in the list of â€Å"naut words,† here’s your answer. The naut in juggernaut is not the combining form that means sailor or traveler. It’s an accident of spelling. In Hindu religion, Jaggernaut is a title of Krishna. The title derives from Hindi Jagannath, â€Å"Lord of the world.† In an annual ceremony, a representation of this incarnation is carried in procession by an enormous vehicle. The ritual is especially associated with the town of Puri in India. According to legend, devotees there once allowed themselves to be crushed under the wheels of the cart in sacrifice. The word juggernaut is used figuratively to mean, â€Å"anything that demands blind devotion or merciless sacrifice and â€Å"a massive inexorable force or object that advances irresistibly and crushes whatever is in its path.† For example, Donald  Trump  is a  political juggernaut  with a carnival barkers draw.- Dallas News Game of Thrones: Can HBO’s Juggernaut Maintain Its Momentum?- The Fiscal Times. In the following examples, the word unstoppable is redundant: The big unstoppable juggernaut proved the inspiration for so many players- Independent (Ireland) At first glance the Argonaut High girls  basketball  team looks like an  unstoppable juggernaut.  Auburn Journal Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Useful Stock Phrases for Your Business Emails"Have" vs "Having" in Certain ExpressionsThe "Pied" in The Pied Piper

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Clark Construction Group Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Clark Construction Group - Essay Example Knowledge sharing (K-sharing), moreover, can result from the formation of communities of practice that can derive and share critical knowledge for making important strategic decisions (Dalkir & Liebowitz, 2011, p.4). Knowledge management (KM) is important for examining the external competitive environment of Clark Construction Group, LLC (CCG). CCG has a century of experiencing in construction, particularly in building landmarks. It has already built a number of important structures such as the Boston Convention and Exhibition Center, Dulles International Airport, and FedEx Field, the home base of the Washington Redskins. Clark Construction is involved in offering consultancy services to commercial, institutional, and heavy construction customers. It can give construction management, design/build, and general contracting services. It can build convention centers, sports facilities, production plants, water treatment plants, highways and bridges, and high-rise apartments. KM is significant for CCG because the more that it knows about its customers, products, technologies, competitors, markets, and their connections, the more that it can perform better. Linking knowledge management and business strategy, however, is a difficult process that requires a strong link between KM theories and KM practices (Baskerville & Dulipovici, 2006). Not all executives are effective in expressing the connection between their companies’ intellectual sources and skills and the firm’s competitive strategy. With a wide portfolio and high number of employees, CCG faces the difficulty of creating an effective organization-wide K-sharing system. CCG should develop strategic models that help link its knowledge resources, technologies, and processes to business strategy through using pragmatic KM theories for knowledge management to be pragmatic, theoretically-sound

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Immigration to the United States Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Immigration to the United States - Essay Example There have been numerous arguments and ideas put forth, both, by the supporters and critics of immigration to the United States. One of the arguments put forth by those who feel that there need to be restrictions placed on immigrations, is that immigrations dilute the superior composition of the society. They feel that the infusion of heterogeneous groups dilutes the superiority of their countrymen. Earlier, the Americans did not face any problem, doing jobs that were not really meant for the higher strata of the society. However, with the natives of other countries coming in, these jobs have been allocated to them. The Americans, now, have grown increasingly partial in accepting these jobs. This, has, therefore, led to the classification of work. In addition to this, they feel that the immigrants were assets earlier on; and have now transformed into liabilities. It is commonly felt that the immigrant work force is now large and has pushed the Americans out of the work force employed. They also feel that the immigrants are a menace to American ideals. On the other hand, there are th

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Uncogent Argument Essay Example for Free

Uncogent Argument Essay Abortion and the Conscience of the Nation. Human Life Review 30.3 (2004): 58-65. Academic Search Complete. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. Abortions Deleterious Effects on Women: Mental Health, Quality Of Life, and Mortality Rates. National Right to Life News 33.1 (2006): 17. Academic Search Complete. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. Chapter 4: Preventing Unsafe Abortion. Research On Reproductive Health At WHO (2002): 37-41. Academic Search Complete. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. Bachioch, Erika. Embodied Equality: Debunking Equal Protection Arguments For Abortion Rights. Harvard Journal Of Law Public Policy 34.3 (2011): 889-950. Academic Search Complete. Web. 24 Oct. 2012. Cannold, Leslie. Chapter Four: Women, Ectogenesis, and Ethical Theory. Ectogenesis. 47-58. n.p.: Editions Rodopi BV, 2006. Academic Search Complete. Web. 2 Nov. 2012. Coleman, Priscilla K. Unfathomable Lies and a Naive Public: Abortion and Mental Health. National Right To Life News 37.11/12 (2010): 24. Academic Search Complete. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. Hamblen J. PTSD in Children and Adolescents: A National Center for PTSD Fact Sheet. Accessed Veterans Administration Web site on February 10, 2006. Lopez, Raquel. Perspectives On Abortion: Pro-Choice, Pro-Life, and What Lies In Between. European Journal Of Social Science 27.2-4 (2012): 511-517. Academic Search Complete. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. Watson, Katie. The Unacknowledged Consensus on Abortion. American Journal of Bioethics 10.12 (2010): 57-59. Academic Search Complete. Web. 24 Oct. 2012. WHO (May 2011). â€Å"Reproductive Health Library.† World Health Organization. Web. 11 Nov. 2012.

Friday, November 15, 2019

Book Assessment of Go Ask Alice :: essays research papers

Book Assessment: Go Ask Alice 1) The most important character in the book is Alice. Her name is not Alice but her real name is never revealed so she is referred to as Alice. She is a lonely, middle class white teenager trying to pull through the long hard years of adolescence. Her life is not too exciting and her friends are dorky and unpopular. One summer day she is invited to mingle with the ?popular? group and she eagerly accepts. Virtually overnight, she is experimenting with drugs and doing things she never would have dreamed of doing. She wants to stop but she finds herself thinking about drugs all of the time. She becomes depressed because of the guilt she is carrying around because of all the sins she is committing. She is also very ashamed because she is infatuated with a boy named Roger but she lost her virginity to a boy named Bill. Her mood swings are drastic and some days Alice is cheerful and motivated to change and the next day she hates everybody in her life and is craving 2) Alice is a lugubrious teenager who gets caught up in the world of drugs. Her diary is her best friend because she never really has a real friend. Go Ask Alice is like watching somebody?s life fall apart at the seams while they simply sit back and watch with you. 3) One symbol in the book is problems of adolescent identity. Throughout the book, Alice is trying to find where she fits in and who really is. She is almost always searching for a best friend, somebody that understands her and someone who will accept her for who she is. She is constantly worried about what people think of her and can never blend in with any group or clique or class. She is perpetually balancing between childhood and adulthood. Another symbol is the maggots and worms eating dead bodies she is always paranoid about. This connects with her drug use and loneliness. When her grandfather dies (who Alice calls ?Gramps?), Alice is upset and withdraws herself from society. Soon this sadness turns into paranoia about the worms and maggots eating Gramps? dead body underground. She periodically mentions being paranoid about this and sometimes wonders if she is losing control of everything including her own mind. This is associated with the notion that nobody knows what is happening to corpses six feet underground while nobody knows what is happening in her mind and how much she is struggling to keep sane.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Three Major Perspectives in Sociology Essay

Three Major Perspectives in Sociology Sociologists analyze social phenomena at different levels and from different perspectives. From concrete interpretations to sweeping generalizations of society and social behavior, sociologists study everything from specific events (the microlevel of analysis of small social patterns) to the â€Å"big picture† (the macro level of analysis of large social patterns). The pioneering European sociologists, however, also offered a broad conceptualization of the fundamentals of society and its workings. Their views form the basis for today’s theoretical perspectives, or paradigms, which provide sociologists with an orienting framework—a philosophical position—for asking certain kinds of questions about society and its people. Sociologists today employ three primary theoretical perspectives: the symbolic interactionist perspective, the functionalist perspective, and the conflict perspective. These perspectives offer sociologists theoretical paradigms for explaining how society influences people, and vice versa. Each perspective uniquely conceptualizes society, social forces, and human behavior (see Table 1). Read more: Functionalist Conflict and Interactionist Perspectives The symbolic interactionist perspective The symbolic interactionist perspective, also known as symbolic interactionism, directs sociologists to consider the symbols and details of everyday life, what these symbols mean, and how people interact with each other. Although symbolic interactionism traces its origins to Max Weber’s assertion that individuals act according to their interpretation of the meaning of their world, the American philosopher George H. Mead (1863–1931) introduced this perspective to American sociology in the 1920s. According to the symbolic interactionist perspective, people attach meanings to symbols, and then they act according to their subjective interpretation of these symbols. Verbal conversations, in which spoken words serve as the predominant symbols, make this subjective interpretation especially evident. The words have a certain meaning for the â€Å"sender,† and, during effective communication, they hopefully have the same meaning for the â€Å"receiver.† In other terms, words are not static â€Å"things†; they require intention and interpretation. Conversation is an interaction of symbols between individuals who constantly interpret the world around them. Of course, anything can serve as a symbol as long as it refers to something beyond itself. Written music serves as an example. The black dots and lines become more than mere marks on the page; they refer to notes organized in such a way as to make musical sense. Thus, symbolic interactionists give serious thought to how people act, and then seek to determine what meanings individuals assign to their own actions and symbols, as well as to those of others. Consider applying symbolic interactionism to the American institution of marriage. Symbols may include wedding bands, vows of life†long commitment, a white bridal dress, a wedding cake, a Church ceremony, and flowers and music. American society attaches general meanings to these symbols, but individuals also maintain their own perceptions of what these and other symbols mean. For example, one of the spouses may see their circular wedding rings as symbolizing â€Å"never ending love,† while the other may see them as a mere financial expense. Much faulty communication can result from differences in the perception of the same events and symbols. Critics claim that symbolic interactionism neglects the macro level of social interpretation—the â€Å"big picture.† In other words, symbolic interactionists may miss the larger issues of society by focusing too closely on the â€Å"trees† (for example, the size of the diamond in the wedding ring) rather than the â€Å"forest† (for example, the quality of the marriage). The perspective also receives criticism for slighting the influence of social forces and institutions on individual interactions. The functionalist perspective According to the functionalist perspective, also called functionalism, each aspect of society is interdependent and contributes to society’s functioning as a whole. The government, or state, provides education for the children of the family, which in turn pays taxes on which the state depends to keep itself running. That is, the family is dependent upon the school to help children grow up to have good jobs so that they can raise and support their own families. In the process, the children become law†abiding, taxpaying citizens, who in turn support the state. If all goes well, the parts of society produce order, stability, and productivity. If all does not go well, the parts of society then must adapt to recapture a new order, stability, and productivity. For example, during a financial recession with its high rates of unemployment and inflation, social programs are trimmed or cut. Schools offer fewer programs. Families tighten their budgets. And a new social order, stability, and productivity occur. Functionalists believe that society is held together by social consensus, or cohesion, in which members of the society agree upon, and work together to achieve, what is best for society as a whole. Emile Durkheim suggested that social consensus takes one of two forms: Mechanical solidarity is a form of social cohesion that arises when people in a society maintain similar values and beliefs and engage in similar types of work. Mechanical solidarity most commonly occurs in traditional, simple societies such as those in which everyone herds cattle or farms. Amish society exemplifies mechanical solidarity. In contrast, organic solidarity is a form of social cohesion that arises when the people in a society are interdependent, but hold to varying values and beliefs and engage in varying types of work. Organic solidarity most commonly occurs in industrialized, complex societies such those in large American cities like New York in the 2000s. The functionalist perspective achieved its greatest popularity among American sociologists in the 1940s and 1950s. While European functionalists originally focused on explaining the inner workings of social order, American functionalists focused on discovering the functions of human behavior. Among these American functionalist sociologists is Robert Merton (b. 1910), who divides human functions into two types: manifest functions are intentional and obvious, while latent functions are unintentional and not obvious. The manifest function of attending a church or synagogue, for instance, is to worship as part of a religious community, but its latent function may be to help members learn to discern personal from institutional values. With common sense, manifest functions become easily apparent. Yet this is not necessarily the case for latent functions, which often demand a sociological approach to be revealed. A sociological approach in functionalism is the consideration of the relationship between the functions of smaller parts and the functions of the whole. Functionalism has received criticism for neglecting the negative functions of an event such as divorce. Critics also claim that the perspective justifies the status quo and complacency on the part of society’s members. Functionalism does not encourage people to take an active role in changing their social environment, even when such change may benefit them. Instead, functionalism sees active social change as undesirable because the various parts of society will compensate naturally for any problems that may arise. The conflict perspective The conflict perspective, which originated primarily out of Karl Marx’s writings on class struggles, presents society in a different light than do the functionalist and symbolic interactionist perspectives. While these latter perspectives focus on the positive aspects of society that contribute to its stability, the conflict perspectivefocuses on the negative, conflicted, and ever†changing nature of society. Unlike functionalists who defend the status quo, avoid social change, and believe people cooperate to effect social order, conflict theorists challenge the status quo, encourage social change (even when this means social revolution), and believe rich and powerful people force social order on the poor and the weak. Conflict theorists, for example, may interpret an â€Å"elite† board of regents raising tuition to pay for esoteric new programs that raise the prestige of a local college as self†serving rather than as beneficial for students. Whereas American sociologists in the 1940s and 1950s generally ignored the conflict perspective in favor of the functionalist, the tumultuous 1960s saw American sociologists gain considerable interest in conflict theory. They also expanded Marx’s idea that the key conflict in society was strictly economic. Today, conflict theorists find social conflict between any groups in which the potential for inequality exists: racial, gender, religious, political, economic, and so on. Conflict theorists note that unequal groups usually have conflicting values and agendas, causing them to compete against one another. This constant competition between groups forms the basis for the ever†changing nature of society. Critics of the conflict perspective point to its overly negative view of society. The theory ultimately attributes humanitarian efforts, altruism, democracy, civil rights, and other positive aspects of society to capitalistic designs to control the masses, not to inherent interests in preserving society and social order. Feminist theory is one of the major contemporary sociological theories, which analyzes the status of women and men in society with the purpose of using that knowledge to better women’s lives. Feminist theorists have also started to question the differences between women, including how race, class, ethnicity, and age intersect with gender. Feminist theory is most concerned with giving a voice to women and highlighting the various ways women have contributed to society. There are four main types of feminist theory that attempt to explain the societal differences between men and women: Gender Differences: The gender difference perspective examines how women’s location in, and experience of, social situations differ from men’s. For example, cultural feminists look to the different values associated with womanhood and femininity as a reason why men and women experience the social world differently. Other feminist theorists believe that the different roles assigned to women and men within institutions better explain gender difference, including the sexual division of labor in the household. Existential and phenomenological feminists focus on how women have been marginalized and defined as the â€Å"other† in patriarchal societies. Women are thus seen as objects and are denied the opportunity for self-realization. Gender Inequality: Gender-inequality theories recognize that women’s location in, and experience of, social situations are not only different but also unequal to men’s. Liberal feminists argue that women have the same capacity as men for moral reasoning and agency, but that patriarchy, particularly the sexist patterning of the division of labor, has historically denied women the opportunity to express and practice this reasoning. Women have been isolated to the private sphere of the household and, thus, left without a voice in the public sphere. Even after women enter the public sphere, they are still expected to manage the private sphere and take care of household duties and child rearing. Liberal feminists point out that marriage is a site of gender inequality and that women do not benefit from being married as men do. Indeed, married women have higher levels of stress than unmarried women and married men. According to liberal feminists, the sexual division of labor in both the public and private spheres needs to be altered in order for women to achieve equality. Gender Oppression: Theories of gender oppression go further than theories of gender difference and gender inequality by arguing that not only are women different from or unequal to men, but that they are actively oppressed, subordinated, and even abused by men. Power is the key variable in the two main theories of gender oppression: psychoanalytic feminism and radical feminism. Psychoanalytic feminists attempt to explain power relations between men and women by reformulating Freud’s theories of the subconscious and unconscious, human emotions, and childhood development. They feel that conscious calculation cannot fully explain the production and reproduction of patriarchy. Radical feminists argue that being a woman is a positive thing in and of itself, but that this is not acknowledged in patriarchal societies where women are oppressed. They identify physical violence as being at the base of patriarchy, but they think that patriarchy can be defeated if women recognize their own value and strength, establish a sisterhood of trust with other women, confront oppression critically, and form female separatist networks in the private and public spheres. Structural Oppression: Structural oppression theories posit that women’s oppression and inequality are a result of capitalism, patriarchy, and racism. Socialist feminists agree with Karl Marx and Freidrich Engels that the working class is exploited as a consequence of the capitalist mode of production, but they seek to extend this exploitation not just to class but also to gender. Intersectionality theorists seek to explain oppression and inequality across a variety of variables, including class, gender, race, ethnicity, and age. They make the important insight that not all women experience oppression in the same way. White women and black women, for example, face different forms of discrimination in the workplace. Thus, different groups of women come to view the world through a shared standpoint of â€Å"heterogeneous commonality.† Comparing the Four Sociological Theories Introduction to Sociology: 4 Basic Theories Conflict Functionalism Symbolic Interactionism Social Exchange Macro Macro Micro Micro -Inequality lies at the core of society which leads to conflict -Resources are limited -Power is not evenly distributed -Competition is inevitable (winners & losers) -Negotiations based on influence, threats, promises, and consensus -Threats and coercion -Any resource can be used as tool of power or exploitation -War is natural -Haves and have nots -Privileges are protected by haves -Order is challenged by have nots -Examples of: Gender & Feminist -Uses biological model (society is like a living organism) -Society has interrelated parts -What are functions or dysfunctions of parts -Society finds balance and is stable -Equilibrium -Society adjusts to maintain balance -How are parts integrated -Manifest functions -Latent functions and dysfunctions -Example of: Systems Theory -Society is an ongoing process of many social interactions -Interactions based on symbolic context in which they occur -Subjective perceptions are critical to how symbols are interpreted -Communications -Meanings -Significant others -Roles -Relative deprivation -Self -Reality shaping in self and with others -Key Ideas: Social construction of reality Thomas Theorem Definition of situation -Example of: theories of self -Society is an ongoing series of exchanges which occur during interactions -Interactions based on formula: (Rewards- Costs)=Outcomes Rewards -Costs -Profit/Loss -Comparisons -Limited resources -Power -Legitimacy -Equity -Negotiations -Tradeoffs -Example of: Levinger=s model on divorce: (Attractions +/- Barriers)=/-(Alternative Attractions)

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Translation of Narendranath Mitra’s Short Story

HEROINE Director Animesh Chaudhury came to Chitpur to sign a contract with Malati Mallik. He got an excellent opportunity to make his own film. Earlier Animesh was an assistant director. The producer, Boikuntha Poddar was a miser person. He gave only eighty-five thousands and demanded for a good movie. It was a challenge for Animesh. He had to face this, as he was a new filmmaker. However, he knew that he has to spend near of about one lakh. He needed to work hard to keep ahead. He did almost all the works by his own presence. From the initial stage he ran here and there, he gave hard time in almost every part of the work.Malati was not so famous in acting, yet she had to play a minor character. The role was short that was the reason she was given that role. She had to play the role of a wife of a worthless husband, a mother of a hungry boy etc. But, Animesh did not get Malati, even after the evening at her home. The servant Khantamoni said, â€Å"She has gone outside with Babu*. Sh ould I say something to her? † Animesh gave a name card to her with pale face. That whole evening was spoilt. Vinoy Chakroborty, lived at Joy Mitra Street, was an old friend of Animesh.Animesh used to visit his house frequently. His wife Labonno, offered him tea, coffee, including other delicious food. Animesh also gave them tickets of some new movies. He did not go there for a long time, as he was quite busy with his new direction and after returning from Malati’s house, he decided to go there to make himself free from these burdens for the moment. At least he would enjoy their company. He entered in a narrow gali*, where Vinoy lived in an old broken house. He was poor; he did not get any good job though he bore a good qualification.Animesh enjoyed their company, as they were very simple. He could feel a simple generous affection from them, which he did not get from that miserable city. Some loud arguments were going on inside the house. It was stopped by the sounds of knock at the door. Vinoy came, â€Å"Who is it? † Animesh called him by his name then Vinoy could recognize him. He opened the door and asked him to come in. But Animesh did not get that warm welcome which he usually got. He entered in the room. After entering into the room, he found nothing organized. Everything was misplaced.The shirt was tasting the dust on the floor, some paddy corn made the floor golden, the broken mirror on the floor was reflecting lights here and there etc. Labonno was silent and sad. Animesh got everything from the situation. A few minutes back the tornedo of anger came and ruined the decoration of the room. Vinod gave a stool to sit. Animesh said, â€Å"I think I have disturbed you. It was in climax, I can guess all these from the unorganized situation of the room. Vinoy offered cigarette, both of them lit the cigarette. â€Å"I am fed up with my life. I was not aware of such problematic situations of family life. Feature Article –  The Plane of the Sleeping Beauty AnalysisWhich couple does not have sons or daughter? Whose son or daughter dose not suffers from disease? A father always does his best. I also did, but I have limitation,†- Vinoy said with a sad voice. Labonno was silent but listening to the words she shouted, â€Å"My son would have died due to typhoid. None thought that he will be alive. † She pulled that little boy before Animesh and said in sad tone, â€Å"Look at my little son. Does he look like a normal boy? He can not walk properly, even he does not get proper energy in his left leg. I went to doctor, he advised to fed him well.If he is feed well he will be recovered soon. That is why I asked him to bring Oval tine. But I did not know that a father can behave like this with an unfortunate son’s mother. † At the meantime, the boy started crying. Perhaps he felt pain in his leg. Labonno took him in her lap and said, â€Å"My sona* †¦ D o not cry†¦ Your uncle will condemn you. Do you know your uncle is a good photographer. He will take your photos. Animesh, you have to take a good photo of my Bintu. Labonno smiled. That unexpected smile attracted Animesh. She was fair, tall and possessed a sharp nose.She bore a different kind of sweetness in her face. She was nearly twenty-four. Moreover, her body was much more attractive than her face. Poverty could not loot her attractive beauty. Animesh was gazing at her and by observing this Labonno lowered her face and asked, â€Å"You have totally forgotten us. Why not, after all you have become a busy director. † â€Å"Nothing like that baudi*†-He answered with a smile. â€Å"It is not fare Vinoy. You should take care of Bintu. Why did not you bring Oval tine for him? †-He asked Vinoy. â€Å"Why did not you bring! It was not only Oval tine but the other commodities also.You know, it is the last week of this month. I get only seventy rupees per mont h. I am not careless father but I can not. †- Vinoy answered with tempted voice. Few seconds everything was silence but suddenly Vinoy strangely laughed and said, â€Å"If she wish more to take care of her son, she could have got son from a rich man, not from a clerk. † â€Å"Listen to his vulgar words†-Labonno said. Animesh snubbed at him, â€Å"Do not speak rubbish! Where did you learn such vulgar words? †Vinoy remained silent. Animesh was looking at him with compassion. He was not more than thirty but he was looking like a man of forty. Have you managed any part time job? †-Animesh curiously asked. The answer came in negative. Labonno took out two cups, sugar and tealeaves from the selves and went out through the back door. The little boy hobbled towards the mother. Vinoy calmly said, â€Å"You have become director now, if you can give me any short role. † Animesh laughed at him and said, â€Å"You want a role! You can not even speak prope rly before any unknown person and you want to act. Then I have to give you the role of a dead soldier. † Animesh looked at him after his mockery and said, â€Å"How will you slay the slain?A dead is always dead in real life and reel life. † Labonno entered with a cup of tea and said, â€Å"Now I think he is quarreling with you. He has become so grumbled in these days that he can not think anything but quarreling. † Taking the cup from Labonno, Animesh answered, â€Å"Actually he wants to act on screen. He would not be able to perform so but if you try, you can. I am sure about it. Do you wish baudi? † Labonno laughed and said, â€Å"Is it so? Then definitely I wish, after all you are the doirector. † â€Å"I am not joking. I am serious Vinoy. If you agree then I can give a short role to her. -Animesh. Animesh explained everything regarding the need of that character. Vinoy was laughing. What was wrong with that? In those days zamindar* women are al so showing their interest in this profession. It was a very short role. Labonno had to be given a perfect role; a role of a diseased son. They had to give only four or five shots. She did not even have to speak more. She had to meet with husband only once. Most of the scene would be with an old doctor. Bintu would also act before camera. She would be paid more than three hundred rupees for that short scene. Three hundred!Labonno could not speak for a long time but Vinoy and Labonno were staring at each other. She could pay all the dues which she took earlier for Bintu’s treatment, she could buy healthy food for him, new cloths she would give him also, she would open a bank account for her only son with twenty-five rupees. Labonno would buy new cloths for Vinoy to make him happy. At last, if Vinoy gave permission she would buy a new saree* for her. Although she knew, that Vinoy would buy a new saree for her. â€Å"You are joking. †- Labonno said. Animesh answered, †Å"I am serious baudi if you agree I can manage. †Before leaving the house, he again requested Vinoy to think over it. Vinoy had to take concrete decision before ten’o clock in the morning; otherwise, Animesh would sign a contract with another person. He had already finished half of the movie and rest of it should be finished within forty-five days. He could not delay more. â€Å"Labonno had agreed. †-Vonoy brought the news in the early morning but he requested Animesh to change her name. â€Å"Is it your wish or her? If she becomes famous then you have to regret for it,†Animesh said with a smile. Malati had come to the studio at the middle of the day. She was above thirty.She worn a multi coloured saree, her lips were filled with pink colour, and tried to cover the black shed under the eyes with powder. â€Å"You are late Miss Mallik. I have signed the contract with the other person,† Animesh surprisingly said. Malati also shockingly shouted,  "What! You said me to come before twelve. Please†¦look at your watch. † She showed her wristwatch to Animesh. â€Å"I have appointed a new person today in the morning, I was in a hurry. I have to start shooting from tomorrow morning. Apart from this, I think you are not perfect for this role of a mother Miss Mallik,† Animesh calmly clarifies the things.But Malati tempted and shouted, â€Å"A photographer became a director that is why he is not aware of acting talent. Do not forget your position. I have walked over such irresponsible director throughout my life. One swallow does not make a summer, mind it Animesh. † Malati left the studio and then it seemed that a village got relief from the storm. Vinoy once came to studio with wife and son to show them how things happen. All were very curious about it. There was only one day in between, no time for rehearsal. Bintu was a golden discovered, as the director needed a diseased boy. Fortunately, he got it in rea l.Next day Animesh brought his friend, friend’s wife and son by his own car. Suddenly the director came across with Malati Mallik at the doorsteps of the studio. Animesh asked her the reason behind her sudden appearance in the studio, in a calm voice. â€Å"I have come to meet your new star,† Malati jealously looked at Labonno and said. Malati left the place after taunting him. Labonno asked Animesh, â€Å"Who was this lady? Why was she staring at me like that? † â€Å"She is not an ordinary lady. She could take your position but I†¦ † rest of it he did not express. Animesh had explained everything to producer.If Labonno could play the role then the producer had to pay less money and apart from this it would also be beneficial for promo of the movie, after all a daughter-in-law from respectable family would act on screen with her own son. â€Å"Laxmi* has appeared in my studio. How sweet her face is! Take her to the refreshment room,†The produ cer Boikunthababu* warmly welcomed her. The shot was ready. A lowered middle class family with a diseased son, he diseased son was lying on the old and dirty bed on the floor. Irresponsible father was somewhere enjoying with his friends. The doctor would not start his treatment if he was not paid.Nobody would be there to call the doctor. The mother had to come to son and she had to go to the window to look for someone. She had only sect in her two wrists. There was necklace in son’s neck. He was crying that was why the mother gave him to wear. Would she remove that necklace from that sleepy sick son? Yes†¦ She had to. She stole golden necklace from sona came out from the home at stormy night to call the doctor. All these were the first day’s take. Aimesh made her understand repeatedly. But Labonno could not. Her face reflected wonder but the shot needed extreme sorrow.She was feeling shy as the other person present in the studio was staring at the new actress. At last, Animesh said with irritation, â€Å"Where is the time to be shy? Your son is suffering from disease. Go and sit beside him. † Repeatedly Animesh made her to understand but repeatedly she failed to do that. She could not perform the shot. A strange fear gripped her. She even could not look anybody, not even her diseased son. Animesh took her to the rest room and said, â€Å"You could not baudi. † Labonno lowered her face in repentance. Malati was sitting just beside the producer. She was laughing loudly to see the situation.The producer requested her to act that particular scene. She could not deny the producer’s request, however she demanded thousand rupees for that particular scene. She came back from the makeup room in ten minutes. She harshly asked Animesh, â€Å"Where is your boy Mr. Director? † There was no boy in the studio except Vinoy’s son. He agreed for benevolence. â€Å"Is this your boy? What can I expect from a clumsy director l ike you? How can I be his mother? I would not even touch that boy,† Miss Malati said in a high-pitched nasal voice. However, Malati acted that scene very well. Bintu started to cry but she managed it by giving him toys and paisa.Then she started to take care of that diseased boy. Her acting impressed everyone. She did better than Animesh’s direction. â€Å"Don’t mind Mr. Director, after all I am his present mother. I know better than you that how to take care of a son,†Malati said with a light smile. She beautifully acted that ‘necklace scene’: â€Å"How can I steal this from my own son? † Then she started sobering. Boikuntha also became compassioned to see this scene. That scene would be the best possible wealth of that movie. Everyone had accepted that. â€Å"Where is my check? ,† Malati spread her hands towards the producer.Animesh happily congratulated, â€Å"I am really satisfied with your acting Miss Malati. How could you act such scene so realistically? † â€Å"All this was because of jealousy Mr. Director. Hope you got to know that who is real mother and who is step,† She said looking at Labonno and left that place. Animesh wanted to leave them at their house but both Vinoy and Labonno disagreed by nodding their heads. Animesh inserted ten rupee note into Bintu’s pocket but Labonno did not take that and said his son, â€Å"Pronam* your uncle and return that note little sweet heart*. That is worthless for you. Uncle would give you chocolate later on. â€Å"I am sorry baudi. † â€Å"Why should you sorry Animesh? † Labonno calmly said and left that studio. That movie ran well for four weeks after the release. It meant Animesh was successful in his first attempt. Everyone had congratulated him but only Vinoy did not come. Animesh thought that they were bashful for the last time that was why he came to friend’s house with two tickets. Health was degraded, clothe s were more dirty and old, the room was emptier, and some of the furniture were missing in that room. However, Vinoy happily welcomed, â€Å"Welcome Mr. Director. I thought you have forgotten us. † I came to know you have earned fame in that movie a lot,† Labonno happily said. â€Å"How can you taste the sweetness of the sweet from other experience? Take your tickets, watch that, and say whatever you want to say. You can criticize also,† Giving the tickets Animesh said. Now his eyes on that naked diseased boy, he has become sicker. â€Å"He was not fully recovered baudi? Again any disease†¦Ã¢â‚¬  He could not finish his talk, somebody knocked at the door and a heavy voice was coming in. Vinoy looked at his wife and whispered, â€Å"Shit†¦! Shit†¦! † â€Å"Who†¦? † Animesh asked. Vinoy again whispered, â€Å"House owner, Govinda Pramanik.He has come for the rent. I do not have the money. This month I did not get the full salary . They have cut as I took some earlier. † Then he said to Labonno to said that he was not in the house. Labonno once looked at Animesh. Vinoy said, â€Å"Don’t be shy before him. He is my childhood friend. † â€Å"Why should he believe you? He has listened to your voice,† Labonno said calmly. Vinoy fully covered his body with a gown, laid on the bed, and said, â€Å"Say him that I am seriously ill. † Labonno went out to face that man. An old man entered into the house with Labonno. He would be more than fifty, healthy, and had gray hair. What happened to you, Vinoybabu? Fever†¦? † The old man asked. Labonno said, â€Å"No uncle†¦ He does not care normal disease. But he has vomited twenty five times from the last night. † Govinda babu stepped back and said in wonder, â€Å"Twenty-five times? What are you saying? † Animesh could recognize the effect and a kind of real reflection was floating over Labonno’s face for her husband’s ill situation. Govinda babu said in tense, â€Å"It is a very bad time. You have to take care of him properly bauma*. † â€Å"No relatives are here, crisis of money and above all this problem. He is the only person who earns in the family.I could not find any way that is why I called my uncle. Hope you have heard the name of doctor Madhu. Even he at first got nervous to see him. † Labonno expressed all these with a broken voice. She uncovered Vinoy’s face, called him, and gave the news of Govinda babu’s arrival. â€Å"No†¦No†¦bauma. Do not disturb him. Let him take rest. I thought I would say him about the fare as it is already second month. I should not say today. I sent Binod but he did not get Vinoy. † Govinda babu sadly said. Labonno replied that Vinoy himself would go to him and would pay his fare after his recovering. She also requested not to send Binod.He was schoolchild and he should not waste time. Labonno suddenly said Animesh, â€Å"You know Animesh, Binod is a very good boy. He is calm and quite. Moreover he is an honest boy†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Animesh stammered, â€Å"Yeeessss†¦. That is right. † At the time pointing the finger at Animesh, Labonno said, â€Å"He is a great director, Animesh. Vinoy’s childhood friend. He has come to meet with Vinoy after getting the news of his serious illness. After sometimes Govinda babu got up and said, â€Å"I have to leave today but if you please say him†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"Definitely uncle, when he will be recovered, first of all I will send him to you.Please sit for a moment, let me bring a cup of tea for you,† Labonno said with a smile. But Govinda babu disagreed and left the house. Leaving the gown on the bed Vinoy got up and said Animesh that he was also a good director. Animesh was silent for a long time but now he made himself easy and said, â€Å"Yes, that is true but more credit goes to baudi. She does not need any director. Looking at Labonno he said, â€Å"You are in no portion less than Malati Mallik. Why did you scare that day? † â€Å"Malati also would have scared in my place Animesh. She could not maintain all the things as I maintained.She is the actress of reel life but I am the heroine of real life. † The natural tear came to witness the real situation of real heroine’s life. I do not know who was greater but I can say that for Malati it was a mere profession but to Labonno it was for survival. *** *Babu- A respectable person. *Gali- A narrow path. *Sona- A call from the mother to express affection. *Baudi- Sister-in-law. *Zamindar- Rich and royal. *Saree- A cloth worn by women in India. *Pronam- A sign to show the respect to the elders in Hinduism. *Bauma- A affectionate call for daughter-in-law. ——- By, Eeshan Ali

Friday, November 8, 2019

The Keyboards Every Writer Should Be Using - Freewrite Store

The Keyboards Every Writer Should Be Using - Freewrite Store As a writer, you’ve probably used a variety of different keyboards, and  know that they’re not all created equal. Keyboards come in many different styles and choosing the right one can have a big effect on your typing speed, comfort, and accuracy. Some have traditional solid, clicky keys with switches inside them, some have modern flat, silent keys, and some fall halfway in between. What kind of keyboard should you be using? In this article, we’ll look at the three main types of keyboards, what makes them different from each other, and which one is likely to be best for you. Membrane keyboards These days, most desktop keyboards are membrane keyboards. Their name derives from their construction. Rather than each key being independent with an inbuilt mechanical switch, all the keys sit on top of a single plastic membrane that houses the electronic circuitry. Between the keys and the circuitry is a rubber sheet with domes that give the keys their characteristic bounce-back when you type. They’re popular because they’re light, cheap to produce, are relatively spill-resistant and give you a bit of tactile feedback. Chiclet keyboards If you’re typing on a modern laptop, chances are you have an island-style keyboard, popularly known as a chiclet keyboard because the square keys with radial corners look somewhat like Chiclets chewing gum. While there’s usually a membrane beneath these keyboards too, the rubber domes that are present beneath higher-profile keys are either omitted altogether or replaced with scissor switches or butterfly switches, which enable the use of very low, flat keys that can fit into thinner and thinner devices. Mechanical keyboards The main difference with a mechanical keyboard is that each key is a separate component with its own switch and metal spring. There are many different kinds of switches that can be used in mechanical keyboards, and each type gives a different user experience with varying levels of travel (the distance you have to press the key for it to register a stroke), bump (the level of tactile feedback) and noise (the click the key makes when depressed). Most mechanical keyboards contain Cherry switches. While their patent for the switch design has recently expired, opening the way for other manufacturers to imitate it, Cherry is still considered the industry leader in keyboard switch technology. Their MX switch, which was first introduced to the market in 1983, is one of the most successful ever made. Cherry switches come in different colors, and each color has its own set of characteristics. The full range is wide, but there are three main variants. Cherry MX Blue These switches have a tactile bump and a loud click that occurs when the keystroke registers, and are favoured by those who like a more typewriter-esque experience. They only need to be depressed to the click point to activate the keystroke but require more force than the Red or Brown variants. Cherry MX Red These switches are favoured by gamers because they have no tactile bump or noise and require less force to press, which is an advantage when you’re engaged in a fast-paced cyber-battle. Cherry MX Brown These are an excellent all-rounder switch – they require the lighter actuation force of the Reds but have the nice tactile bump of the Blues. They lack the Blues’ loud click, however, making them perfect for use in offices or coffee shops where you don’t want to annoy those around you with a constant flurry of clacky keystrokes. Why mechanical keyboards are better for writers People who convert to mechanical keyboards often become lifelong fans because of the satisfying typing experience and range of benefits they get from using them. What makes mechanical keyboards so good for writers? 1. Accuracy There’s nothing worse than trying to type fast on a chiclet keyboard where all the keys are flat and close together, and you’re forever hitting the key beside the one you want with the edge of your finger. Like the keys on a traditional typewriter, mechanical keyboard keycaps tend to be nicely contoured to help your finger naturally hit the centre of the key as you type, resulting in fewer typos. 2. Comfort Mechanical keyboards require less force to type, and you don’t need to press the keys all the way down – only to the point of the click or the tactile bump. Membrane keyboards require you to â€Å"bottom out† each key complete the circuit, something that people often describe as a heavy, â€Å"mushy† typing experience, leading to fatigue in the fingers, hands and wrists. 3. Speed Contoured, more responsive keys naturally lead to faster typing. Another benefit of mechanical keyboards is n-key rollover. Rollover is a technical term for how many simultaneous keypresses a keyboard can register accurately. Membrane keyboards often have a much lower rollover which results in â€Å"ghosting†. That’s when you’re typing flat out, your keystrokes overlap, and your keyboard registers extra keystrokes, resulting in additional â€Å"ghost† letters. Keyboards with n-key rollover can accurately register every keypress, regardless of how many keys you strike simultaneously, meaning you don’t have to slow down to improve accuracy or stop to fix ghosting typos. 4. Durability Mechanical keyboards last a lot longer than their membrane counterparts. Rubber dome switches tend to lose their bounce after about five million keystrokes, and you’ll notice that some keys will become unreliable or stop working completely. In comparison, Cherry key switches are designed to last for fifty million keystrokes. 5. Customization If you’ve got Cherry switches on your mechanical keyboard, you can swap out the keycaps for other styles. Gaming? Change your W, A, S, D keys to red, so they’re easier to locate quickly. Swap your function keys or numeric keypad to a contrasting color for extra style and visibility. Want to modify the feel of the keys? Grab a dampening kit to reduce the travel and key noise. Ready to make the switch? If you’re raring to write your next novel, article or poem on a mechanical keyboard, have a look at The Freewrite by Astrohaus - a smart typewriter that incorporates an industry-leading full-size mechanical keyboard into a portable device with an E-ink screen that works perfectly outdoors as well as indoors. A stand-alone writing tool, it contains none of the distractions of your desktop or laptop, but still has the ability to save your work to the Cloud. Designed especially for writers, the mechanical keyboard contains Cherry MX Brown switches which means not only will you be distraction-free, but so will everyone around you. Check out the Freewrite 2nd Generation Smart Typewriter for more information. Related: Laptop vs. Freewrite    About the author: Claire Wilkins is a freelance copywriter and editor from New Zealand. She loves to write about travel, health, home, and proper punctuation. After a career in financial services spanning almost three decades, Claire left the corporate world behind to start Unmistakable - her writing and editing business. She creates website copy, blogs, and newsletters for creative agencies and small businesses, and  specializes  in polishing existing content until it shines. In her spare time, Claire enjoys cloud-spotting, singing in the car and editing video.

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

About the Trojan Prince Deiphobus

About the Trojan Prince Deiphobus Deipohbus was a prince of Troy and he became the leader of the Trojan army following the death of his brother Hector. He the son of Priam and Hecuba in ancient Greek mythology. He was the brother of Hector and Paris. Deipohbus is viewed as a Trojan hero, and one of the most important figures from the Trojan War. Along with his brother Paris, he is credited with slewing Achilles. After Paris death, he became  Helens husband and was betrayed by her to  Menelaus. Aeneas talks to him in the  Underworld in Book VI of the Aeneid. According to the  Iliad, during the Trojan War, Deiphobus led a group of soldiers in siege and successfully wounded Meriones, an Achaean hero. Hector’s Death During the Trojan War, as Hector was fleeing from Achilles, Athena took the form of Hector’s brother, Deiphobus, and told him to take a stand and fight against Achilles. Hector thought he was getting genuine advice from his brother and tried to spear Achilles. However, when his spear missed, he realized that he had been tricked, and was then in turn killed by Achilles. It was after Hector’s death that Deiphobus became the leader of the Trojan army. Deiphobus and his brother Paris are credited with eventually killing Achilles, and in turn avenging the death of Hector. As Hector was fleeing Achilles, Athena took the shape of Deiphobus and goaded Hector to make a stand and fight. Hector, thinking it was his brother, listened and threw his spear at Achilles. When the spear missed, Hector turned around to ask his brother for another spear, but Deiphobus had vanished. It was then Hector knew the gods had deceived and forsaken him, and he met his fate at the hand of Achilles. Marriage to Helen of Troy After the death of Paris, Deiphobus became married to Helen of Troy. Some accounts say that the marriage was by force​ and that Helen of Troy never truly loved Deiphobus.  This situation is described by the Encyclopedia Britannica: â€Å"Helen chose Menelaus, Agamemnon’s younger brother. During an absence of Menelaus, however, Helen fled to Troy with Paris, son of the Trojan king Priam; when Paris was slain, she married his brother  Deiphobus, whom she betrayed to Menelaus when Troy was subsequently captured. Menelaus and she then returned to Sparta, where they lived happily until their deaths.† Death Deiphobus was killed during the sack of Troy, by either Odysseus of Menelaus. His body was horribly mutilated. Some separate accounts say that it was actually his former wife, Helen of Troy, who killed Deiphobus.

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Biolopy and Sociolization of Crime Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Biolopy and Sociolization of Crime - Essay Example In relation to crime, gender roles play a major role in increasing the participation and prevalence to crime by men more than women. From the perception of the society, males are viewed as masculine and dominant. From the creation of this perception, men tend to increase their show of dominance in the society. Crime is often depicted as a masculine activity a perception easily supported by the need by men to show their social dominance. On the other hand, the perception of the society on the female gender role is not inclusive of complex or hard tasks. Similar to males, women tend to abide by this social classification (Renzetti & Edleson, 2010). The same trend is also visible from the biological creation of both males and females. Biologically, males are built for dominance, strength and authority. For this reason, the participation in crime by men becomes a common occurrence (Renzetti & Edleson, 2010). For women, their gender role as defined by biology is depicted by their less dominant body and social presence. Women tend to view crime as a gender role that is less fit for their biological

Friday, November 1, 2019

Medical malpractice. Requirements Texas Courts Impose for an Expert in Research Paper

Medical malpractice. Requirements Texas Courts Impose for an Expert in Medical Malpractice - Research Paper Example This discussion investigates the commitment of the Texas courts to improve the reliability of medical malpractice experts as sources of vital expert information in medical malpractice cases, with a view to understanding the required qualifications for such experts. Justification Cases involving medical malpractices are some of the most complex ones since the admissibility and the fact finding activities regarding a case are not based on a current occurrence but on a past occurrence that could have caused injury to the patient. This requires that a patient present an expert testimony, which must satisfy the court that the testimony will assist the court in its fact finding mission regarding the case, and that such opinion must be supported by the witness testimony if the case is to be held as valid (Jasper, 2010). This calls upon the experts in the medical malpractice cases to be fully qualified so that they can help the court establish the truth of the matter regarding the case since they are the most reliable source of expertise information in such cases. To enhance the capacity of the medical malpractice experts to help the court establish the truth regarding the failure of a physician to adhere to the required standards of care for patients, the State of Texas has provided certain qualifications, which the experts must meet. Definition of Terms Medical malpractice means professional negligence by a physician by way of action or omission that causes injury or death to a patient. Expert means someone widely recognized as a reliable source of technique or skill Review of Literature For an individual to qualify as an expert in a medical malpractice case, the individual must be knowledgeable and conversant with the procedures, methods and treatments applicable in the area where the physician, who is the defendant in the case, operates (Baker, 2010). This qualification is essential since it allows the expert opinion granted by the individual to be based on the acc eptable standards, procedures and treatment methods, as there are different medical practices for different regions. If an expert who is not conversant with the medical standards and procedures of the area is enlisted to provide an expert opinion, he/she will most likely base the assessment of the procedures and treatment methods on the standards of the area he/she is conversant with, thus giving an expert opinion that might mislead the court since the same standards could not be applicable in the region in question (Jasper, 2010). Thus, the courts in Texas allow medical malpractices experts to issue a statement of opinion if they are familiar with the acceptable standards of operation in the region. A clear understanding of the acceptable operation standards in a region allows the expert to be guided in giving a fair and adequate opinion regarding the level of act or omission of the physician defendant, which translates to liability (Roach, 2006). The other qualification for an exp ert in the medical malpractice case is specialization in the defendant’s field (Roach, 2006). While there was a tendency of allowing experts to give an opinion regarding the knowledge they have in the standards of operations of a certain field, it is certainly not possible for an expert to give a fair, adequate and valid expert opinion if he/she has not specialized in the field of the defendant. Additionally, it would not be possible either to give an expert opinion that is credible if the medical malpractice expert has no experience in performing the operations and techniques in respect