Thursday, December 26, 2019

Life and Career of John Wesley Iliff Free Essay Example, 1250 words

Though Iliff was a prominent and successful rancher, the King of Cattle does not fit a stereotypic cowboy character as the other of ranchers. This is because he did not he befriended American Indians instead of fighting them as other people. Moreover, when he saw starving Indians feeding on one of his many cattle, he looked the other way and let them continue feeding. In addition, he is also different because, while the cowboys of Colorado made about a dollar a day, he was one of Colorado s first self-made millionaire (Noel). Despite being a teetotaler and a Christian, John Wesley Iliff, Sr. donated his first Curtis and 18th Streets mansion to the Keely Institute, which was a treatment center for alcoholics. During his death, fellow cattlemen eulogized him as the squarest man who ever rode over these plains (Noel 13). On his burial, rather than a typical cowboy wooden tomb, Iliff was buried at Denver s Riverside cemetery under an enormous obelisk, which became the centerpiece of t he cemetery. However, in 1820 his daughter moved his remains together with the monument to a more fashionable Fairmount Cemetery. We will write a custom essay sample on Life and Career of John Wesley Iliff or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/page The two met in Denver and consequently got married in Chicago on March 3, 1870. Following the marriage, they had a brief honeymoon and then returned to live in Cheyenne. However, Elizabeth did not like Cheyenne and thus persuaded her husband, and they moved to Denver. This is because; the equal-rights agenda in Wyoming did not appeal to Elizabeth because of the newly won women rights.

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Mayan Civilization Ancient Civilizations - 1314 Words

Mayan Civilization The mayan civilization was one of the earliest civilizations that occupied areas that are today known as Guatemala, Northern Belize, and Mexico. The mayan civilization lived through what is known as the Classic Period. Their culture began about 250 C.E. and ended near 900 C.E. While most of the population lived in what is present day Guatemala the population of the mayans rose from 5,000 to almost two million people near the end of the Classic Period. Although the mayans are known for their cultural unity, the mayans were an advanced civilization that can be analyzed through their advancements in technology. To begin with, the mayan civilization was an advanced civilization that can be analyzed through its advancement†¦show more content†¦Through the usage of slash and burn agriculture the mayans demonstrated their advancement in agricultural techniques by creating a fertilization that required nothing less than the own forest they burned. Furthermore, the mayans would develop their own tools as well as farming methods such as terracing and irrigation which would help them preserve the land for the next centuries. The Britannica Encyclopedia states that the mayans used tools such as the hoe hence they had not discovered the invention of the iron plow. Unlike today s hoe, it consisted of a blade set at geometric right angles attached to a long handle which would make it effective when digging through tough soil. Moreover, the Britannica Encyclopedia writes, â€Å"they used advanced techniques of irrigation and terracing.† Terracing was the agricultural method in which the mayans would either plant their crops on mountains or on the side of hills. Through this method the mayans were not only able to preserve more water but they were also able to prolong the fertility of the soil they used by reducing its erosion. In addition to the preservation of water, the mayans applied the usage of irrigation. Irrigation was the farming met hod of either applying water to where it was needed or removing water from areas that had an excess amount. By using irrigation the mayans were able to increase production of crops while also improvingShow MoreRelatedThe Mayan Civilization : Ancient Civilization1425 Words   |  6 PagesThe Mayan Civilization: For many centuries the Mayan was of life was a mystery to archaeologists. Their geography, social structure, government, economy/trade, technology, writing, and arts were all thought to be forever lost. Now, as archaeologists are still uncovering more information, what was once referred to as â€Å"The Lost Civilization of Maya†, has been awakened from the grave of unknown. Geography: The ancient Mayan Civilization surrounded by the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean stretchedRead MoreAncient Civilization And The Mayan People917 Words   |  4 PagesEvery ancient civilization had a set of beliefs and the Mayan people were no different. The Mayan people believed in two worlds, the â€Å"everyday world and the underworld, or the Place of Awe,† (2012). The Mayans believed in many gods, human sacrifice and the burial process for the poor and the kings were very different. The Mayans became around 250 AD and the Olmec’s influenced their religious culture. It was not until 900 AD that the Mayans began to flourish in cities across modern day Mexico, GuatemalaRead MoreThe Ancient Mayan Civilization : A Rigid Social Structure1627 Words   |  7 PagesThe Ancient Mayan Civilization was built upon a rigid social structure based on their religious beliefs. They used a caste social structure in which divisions were based on wealth, inherited rank, privilege, profession, or occupation. Their beliefs were based on the fact that nature elements had the power to either help or harm. The Ancient Mayans used their social structure and beliefs to shape their daily lives. The Mayans were a very religious. They believed in many gods and all events centeredRead MoreAncient Maya Essay868 Words   |  4 PagesAncient Maya Essay Matthew Pitcher Mrs Meligrana Ancient Civilizations June 8th, 2011 Pitcher1 The Ancient Mayan civilization stands out from other ancient civilizations and is great because of its outstanding achievements and developments. The Mayans are still known to this day for their exceptional architecture, medical discoveries, astronomy, and military tactics which were very successful. In this essay I will explain what the Mayans have achieved to make themselvesRead MoreFactors That Affect The Rise And Fall Of Civilizations Essay914 Words   |  4 PagesRise and the Fall of Mayan Civilization Area and Egyptian Civilization Area In ancient time, environmental factors were very important. It directed the people to where they should settle to practice agriculture for their living. Among many different important environmental factors such as geography, geology, plant and animal species, agricultural potential, resource abundance, one of the most significants factors which influenced to the rise and the fall of civilizations is climate. In my paperRead MoreCharacteristics Of The Mayan Civilizations733 Words   |  3 Pagesof civilizations. Three major ones are the Aztec, Maya, and Inca . These different civilizations play a very important role in history today. The Maya empire was highly skilled at building and architecture. They also were the only empire in mesoamerica to develop a complete writing system. The Maya were also highly skilled at agriculture and farming. The Maya were by far the most advanced and smart civilization. The Maya empire was very precise and exact when it came to architecture. Mayans builtRead MoreThe Cultural Similarities Differences Between the Inca and Mayan Empires619 Words   |  3 PagesInca and Mayan empires existed at different times in history, they have a few things in common. Like other societies throughout history though, they have many things that set them apart from each other. The biggest similarity they share is that they both had control of massive empires that eventually ceased to exist. To start off with, the Mayans existed earlier in history than the Incas. The Mayans existed from 1000 BC to AD 1697 and no one is quite certain what wiped out their ancient civilizationRead MoreEconomy in Early American Civilizations: Maya, Aztecs and Inca865 Words   |  4 PagesThe economic systems of early American societies were very similar. One of these societies, the Mayans, lived in southern Mexico and northern Central America from the 3rd to the 10th century CE, and they relied on the trade of goods such as obsidian and crops such as cacao beans. Another American civilization was the Aztec civilization. They were located in the Valley of Mexico around the 13th to 16th century CE, and they used slash-and-burn farming to plant crops to trade. The Inca Empire existedRead MorePhilosophy624 Words   |  3 Pagesreligion plays a critical role in ancient civilization, culture creation, and preservation in the sense that they not only bind, but also influence the societal stru cture, statutes, and personal lives. This paper documents the Mayan culture taking into consideration their civilization, ideologies, as well as their rituals. Civilization Factors contributing to culture creation and preservation extend from geographical to a number of patterns. The origin of the Mayan culture from the central partRead MoreSimilarities Between Civilizations And Civilizations958 Words   |  4 PagesThroughout history there have been similarities between civilizations, some of which were on separate parts of the world. Many scholars and historians have been baffled by the discoveries of these similarities due to the fact that these cultures were not only hundreds of miles apart but also were separated by hundreds of years. The ancient Egyptian civilization located in northern Africa around 3,100 B.C. is considered to be one of the cradles of civilization and also a major contributor to the technology

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Identity and Language Learning in Study †Free Samples to Students

Question: Discuss about the Identity and Language Learning in Study. Answer: Introduction: Setting goals for studying in an abroad country because ids makes me clear what I want to get out of my trip in the USA and makes me sure whether I am capable for accomplishing my goals. Advancement for future profession Utilizing scope for studying with preferred subject Facing challenges for living as well as studying in USA Desire for expanding my own horizons Experiencing an exotic place Learning other languages and cultures Keeping up with other students Hoping for the new setting Avoiding uncertainty and pointlessness and finding a new way My concept about the culture and behaviour of the USA is largely based on the news, movies, TV shows and friend living in the USA. I believe that the country is rich with diverse culture as people from different section of the world visit America. It also has immigrants who stay in the county for profession and research works. Some of them must have loved the culture and could not return back to their native land. Therefore, it seems to be very difficult for defining a typical American. From the American history I came to know that current Americans are largely from European decent therefore, I guess some of the cultural traits will be familiar with my Australian culture. Most Americans I believe lover of various sports. As they work throughout week, they look forward for entertainment in the weekends. I guess they spend recess watching sports in stadiums or TV. American influence on Australian culture: Until WWII Australian culture was mostly bore the influence from Britain. Most of the population was decent from Britain or born in Britain. After war they came to Australia and started living here. Therefore, many people considered the country to be a British colony and nothing more than that. Our national identity was similar to that of Britain and its effect was far reaching. The Briton culture effected our food, fashion, entertainments, sporting culture including social values as well as attitudes. After world war, our culture stated to change significantly. As the USA has become the economic power, they also started to dominate cultures all over the world through Television shows, movies and music (Salisbury, An and Pascarella 2013). During post-war era, people of Australia were becoming affluent and taking advantages of technology as well as communications, which enabled transmission of products and ideas from America seamlessly. We even use the American spelling as major computer companies use such changed spellings. American shows, media and movies have also influenced our general knowledge and society. I believe USA has always been an allure and drawing talents like magnet. Studying in the USA will allow me for valuable academic, personal as well as professional development. It will definitely open up innumerable career opportunities after my completion of studies. The country has the reputation for famous higher education programs and half of the worlds best universities are located in the USA. I believe that small size of the classes, highly accredited teachers, advanced technological support and research capabilities will create greater opportunity for me. Completing studies from top universities of USA will encourage me and distinguish me from other peers with same background as well as help in getting ready for career experience. I believe that I shall be expert in my field when I will get into my kind of profession. This is because study in the USA will provide me with facilities on any subject I want to choose. The countrys international students policy will be guiding me for getting scholarships. The USA is the leader in the fields of technology as well as research. These are benefitted from funding and support to the international students. I will be able to join the research projects in the universities where the students works are published and they can apply for patent and even get assistance in starting companies. These universities have research labs as well as campuses. The university campuses will give not only professional opportunities but also encourage me to socialise with peers. I have heard these campuses also include a lot of facilities for student relaxation and entertainment. I know that the USA always welcome multicultural environment therefore even if I get small cultural shock in the beginning I will definitely adapt to the situation. This multiculturalism will help me in my career in future. Interacting with diverge people in colleges will build capability of interaction with people from other culture and analysis issues from global perspective. Living far from home I shall be more self-motivated, flexible as well as independent. I shall become outgoing, communicative and confident for any kind of challenge. Knowledge about USA: From my friends studying in the USA, I have come to that making fun of their culture or derogatory remarks about their country hurt their emotions and background. They also value their privacy and expect etiquette regarding visit to their places. Life in the US seems to me fast paced. The Americans do not intend to waste time for anything. This is I guess the reason why they invented fast food. To me, they might be impatient yet disciplined otherwise the country would not have been so developed. I came across some legal and cultural rigidity prevailing in the country while studying about their culture. Racial comments are strictly judged and hurt peoples emotion. Blacks are referred as African American in USA. The most important knowledge I gained from popular TV shows that people are not so curious about the background or the culture of the immigrants. This may because they have seen and accustomed with people coming from different corner of the world. Some may be curious and ask about my culture and my country if they come to know my origin. The USA is the home of top universities and research academies. They offer international student aids that deal with cultural differences and find solutions for academic problems that the international students face during study in the USA. Cultural challenges: I know that when I shall arrive in the USA I will be facing initial cultural shock that every student from different country face. It is the intense feeling of homesickness and irritability that every student experiences when they travel to new countries and comes across different languages and cultures (Kinginger 2013). In my country, there are various customs and behavioural traits that will be highly irregular if I apply them, in the USA. In the USA, people maintain personal spaces and do not touch in busy areas either by familiar or strangers. Therefore, I need to speed up in understanding the communication style before I stepped in to that country. Financial challenges: I know that the colleges and universities in the USA is expensive. out-of-state tuition in the public universityis difficult and private schools are more expensive. Therefore, I need to plan how will I pay tuitions and other expenses before reaching there. The most important financial challenge that all my friends studying in the USA faced was the cost of health insurance. It is a problem that international students do not get opportunity for automatic and universal healthcare facilities so I have ensured that my university provide good insurance. I can also access the international student health care insurance for avoiding huge medical bills. Social challenges: students and teachers interact differently in the USA. They are more personal yet maintain personal spaces. They also interact differently in the social situations. For me starting as a new student in abroad may be lonely and irritating. Getting known to other students and involvement may be a big question foe me like all the international students but I am fortunate that I have some friends living there and studying in the same college. Academic challenges: the academic background is the most important component in my visiting t the USA. Therefore, it will be easier for me to focus on my study. It is a challenge for the international students that they find US language difficult to decipher initially (Tarrant, Rubin and Stoner 2014). The classroom expectations are also different from that of Australia. Therefore, collaborative studies and interaction with the professors will help me to understand the traits easily. Being and energetic Australian I am looking forward new adventures in my life. in Australia I am not able to pursue my study on my own preferred subject. I will be taking advantages of studying in one of the top colleges in the USA only because of my good academic background. The study abroad programs will be helping me to learn all the features that will help me in my future job. I believe it is the best time to explore the most diverse place where I will be connecting with new people, understand their language, culture, values and perspectives. On the other hand, I can also be a representative of Australian culture and ethnicity. I can make others interested about my history and native art, music, and literature. As we live in an age of globalization, it is important for us to build an inclusive worldview instead of thinking about my own ethos. A student whether study politics, literature or science, need to be capable of thinking from the multi-national perspectives. I believe this will help me facing modern challenges and forming creative solutions. This will teach me to to view things from different point of view, therefore, I shall also learn new things about my own culture. For many international students, it is not about visiting USA for few days and coming back home but it is living there and fitting in the countrys culture. I will be staying there for several months and years among locals, eating cuisines, riding public transport. The foreign will be soon become familiar to me. I will be reaping all the benefits of the scholarships and international student programs and representing my culture. These stories of studying abroad will be there in my memory lane. Among many expectations, I want get an experience of a new and different education system. Depending on my program, my classes will obviously be different that I am used to in Australia. I want to embrace that difference once I am there and take advantages of the strength and resources of the university. My study abroad will expand my perspectives. First of all, I want to know the place where I shall live from a residents point of view. I shall visit all tourist sites and eventually go beyond them. Exploring new town will make me more comfortable in the foreign land. Tasting the local food has always been attractive to me. I believe every place or town has its own delicacy. the culture approves the food habits as well as cuisines. Therefore, to know the culture, I need to be open minded and I believe I shall return home with a new favourite dish. Studying in USA will give me opportunities to know new culture, history, customs, language and ideas that I shall be surrounded by and immerse myself in a new way of life. Influence of TV and movies in concept building: Now America is the dominant superpower of the world. They have both hard power as well as soft power the soft power is the dominance of its culture that are transmitted through their music, literature, media, films art and television shows. In Australia we have popular music that are sourced heavily from America and our youth fell under the spell of American music, movies and dance style. We, the young generation of Australia are hugely influenced with the language whether it is choosing the words and phrases or style of speaking. The term Hollywood conjures up visions of movie stars and Oscar nights and Western gunslingers getting ready for the shootout. Therefore, most of the concept that we form about the country is purely based on their movies and TV shows. As an international student studying in a foreign university I guess by perspective will change largely. It will create opportunity for me to use my skills as well as abilities that I have learnt in my native country. It will help me in learning variety of language and culture, challenges and benefits and how to be a leader from a commoner. Among diversity I shall start to think big far from my comfort zone. Meeting and overcoming challenges will develop confidence and boost my future chances in job market. Getting a new perspective is different from our preconceived notions and teaches to be open minded. Study says that international students are each others advocate. Becoming an ambassador will provide a valuable work experience in my C.V as well as give opportunity to meet and work with people from various backgrounds. I will be able to share my experiences to other prospective students. The international students coming from Australia as well as other countries for studying in the USA will connect with me. Prospective international students can ask me about university life or about housing. I will be providing them practical tips about the problems I faced. Advising them to plan properly and expand social circles will keep the away from gravitate towards the native peers. My job will also include in identifying and reflecting on the skills and strength and provide employers evidence of my learning as well as experience. References: Kinginger, C., 2013. Identity and language learning in study abroad.Foreign Language Annals,46(3), pp.339-358. Salisbury, M.H., An, B.P. and Pascarella, E.T., 2013. The effect of study abroad on intercultural competence among undergraduate college students.Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice,50(1), pp.1-20. Tarrant, M.A., Rubin, D.L. and Stoner, L., 2014. The added value of study abroad: Fostering a global citizenry.Journal of Studies in International Education,18(2), pp.141-161.

Monday, December 2, 2019

Western culture as apatriarchal discourse Essay Example For Students

Western culture as apatriarchal discourse Essay The dominant ideology that colonised Terra Australis and went on to construct Australia was patriarchal. Describe how this gendered perspective is evident in works from Australias past. Support your argument with reference to specific examples. Does such a view persist in the contemporary production of culture in Australia? Introduction The dominant ideology that colonised Terra Australis and subsequently Australia is a dominant ideology that prevails within Western society today. This ideology has not changed dramatically over the last 300 years. This ideology is based around notions of masculinity, superiority, capitalism, expansion and industrialisation which are inherently patriarchal traits. Todays public audience is definitely more liberal and open to a wider range of ideas and views as expressed by an artist and are far more accommodating than colonial days. However, we do have a prevailing culture that is predominantly capitalist and capitalism is strongly grounded within a patriarchal discourse, which in turn is heavily influenced by masculine ideologies. Western Culture as a Patriarchal Discourse. We will write a custom essay on Western culture as apatriarchal discourse specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Western culture is deeply rooted in notions of patriarchal power and dominance, which have remained unchallenged for hundreds of years. A major component of the patriarchal system is understanding the placement of the other within this discourse. Patriarchal ideology is based around an historical and cultural language devised and set by the superiority of the male other. Even in terms of feminism, the female other has replicated herself on the male other for recognition and status within a patriarchal discourse. (Grosz, 1988) The beginnings of Western patriarchal culture can be dated back to the classical Greeks. At a time when great philosophers like Aristotle, Socrates and Plato held great public voice the other was given no real voice or platform from which to be heard. Indeed, Platos thoughts are dominated by a patriarchal hierarchy. His paper on the new world would see man superior to all other beings. Plato states he who has developed his male humanity and can participate in the highest functions of man, politics and war. (Elshtain 1973) The Church has also played a strong role in the definition of a patriarchal society. Until recent times, the Church has been a major influence on society and culture, dictating the accepted roles of gender and representation within society, stringently upholding the divine rules of procreation and obedience and the reverence of civilised man above all else. (Weedon 1987) The prevailing discourse of settlers and explorers to the new land of Terra Australis was that they were adding to, not displacing the local inhabitants. The colonists saw themselves and their ways of being as far superior and more civilised than the local savages and the Aborigines were treated accordingly. Notions of modern Australia were heavily influenced and biased toward masculine modes of thought. In this period we see women and Aborigines as being marginalised, if not totally ignored. This in part was probably due to work that still needed to be done to establish a new country. In Australia today, what we are more inclined to perceive, is a very superficial, politically correct democratic system, based around notions of equality for all marginalised groups eg ethnic races and gender groups. We have a legal system, that on face value, views all peoples as having equal rights and value within society. However, this system in essence does not always follow through on its promises. One only has to look at the Judge who stated when a woman says no, she may mean yes or that statistically, violence against women in this country is actually on the rise. Kenan Malik views Western culture as still being inherently a patriarchal society, the other is still marginalised into a point of indifference. Under notions of multi-culturalism, these differences have been embraced in a public sphere, giving all minorities a public voice, temporarily alleviating any notions of inequality within the different minority groups. .u308936a4cfbadfb715781c96c5524d04 , .u308936a4cfbadfb715781c96c5524d04 .postImageUrl , .u308936a4cfbadfb715781c96c5524d04 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u308936a4cfbadfb715781c96c5524d04 , .u308936a4cfbadfb715781c96c5524d04:hover , .u308936a4cfbadfb715781c96c5524d04:visited , .u308936a4cfbadfb715781c96c5524d04:active { border:0!important; } .u308936a4cfbadfb715781c96c5524d04 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u308936a4cfbadfb715781c96c5524d04 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u308936a4cfbadfb715781c96c5524d04:active , .u308936a4cfbadfb715781c96c5524d04:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u308936a4cfbadfb715781c96c5524d04 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u308936a4cfbadfb715781c96c5524d04 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u308936a4cfbadfb715781c96c5524d04 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u308936a4cfbadfb715781c96c5524d04 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u308936a4cfbadfb715781c96c5524d04:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u308936a4cfbadfb715781c96c5524d04 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u308936a4cfbadfb715781c96c5524d04 .u308936a4cfbadfb715781c96c5524d04-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u308936a4cfbadfb715781c96c5524d04:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Why focus on Environmental Protection? Almost any EssayWhat this course of action does in actuality however, is further marginalise minority groups by expounding and highlighting cultural differences. Not only does it highlight differences between gender, peoples and cultures it nullifies any political statements these groups would like to make regarding their placement within society (Malik, 2002) Colonial Artists and Public Discourse In the beginning of colonisation, Australia or Terra Australis was seen as something of a novelty country by European nations. Australian history, from a Western discourse, really only starts at the time of settlement as a penal colony (Eagl e, Johns 1994). Even through such harsh beginnings, Australia was viewed as a substitute for a home away from home by many of the British citizens inhabiting our shores at that time. There was really only one way and that was the British way. If Australia did not have what they were missing from home, they would endow her with it. This is particularly evident in social codes and behaviour from that period (I couldnt imagine wearing all those items of clothing on a 40 degree day, living in a tent in the middle of the bush!! ). During the 1800s Western culture was heavily invested in all things rational. The importance of the Church had slightly diminished with the advent of new scientific discoveries and it is with these discoveries that society began to believe that perhaps they could actually get closer to God if they understood the world around them better. Objects and art were placed into a classificatory mode and high art became a study into natural history and topography. These things were seen as necessary and imperative for the betterment of a civilised and enlightened nation. It should also be remembered that the camera as we know it had yet to be invented, so there was a great emphasis placed on the artist to produce a replica or exact likeness of the image for educational and reference purposes. (Eagle, Jones 1994) These images became a pictorial history of new lands discovered. In fact the dissemination of knowledge back to the homeland was so important that British officers were trained in the art of drawing so that they could compose a visual diary of their encounters and new findings. (Eagle, Johns 1994) The British Government of the time was very keen to illicit settlers to their newly occupied territory and employed the services of artists to depict a visual documentary of the beauty and bountiful landscape to be found in the new land. These pictures, enticed the new settlers by depicting a land that was vaguely similar to the British landscape, of one not as alien and foreign as one might think. Joseph Lycett was one such artist who imposed his own cultural codes and signifiers onto a newly discovered landscape. In 1824 he published a series of articles entitled Views in Australia to encourage more British settlement in Australia. (Eagle, Johns 1994). Lycett writes: Among all the various occurrences which constitute the history of human affairs, there are perhaps none calculated to excite such universal interest as the discovery of unknown countries, and the progress of art upon the soil and the people, which nature, on such occasions, resigns from her own creative hand to the care and culture of their civilised discoverers