Wednesday, October 30, 2019

FINANCE STRATEGY- EXAM REVISION QUESTION Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

FINANCE STRATEGY- EXAM REVISION QUESTION - Essay Example This means that the repayment of the principal exceeds one year. The following are types of long-term debt Bonds – negotiable instruments that can be bought and sold like common stock, usually at units of $1,000 which is called its face or par value. It has a specified interest rate called coupon rate. Interest payments are usually paid at the end of each interest period, while the principal is paid at maturity. Debentures – This is a bond the only collateral of which is â€Å"the full faith and credit† of the company. The loan is made only on the basis of the creditworthiness and credit rating of the debtor. Debentures are thus a form of unsecured credit and command a higher interest rate because of the higher risk. Mortgage Bonds – This is also a bond like the debenture, but it is secured by a specific collateral, usually a piece of real property. Mortgage bond lenders are thus secured lenders. Because of the security, interest rates are usually lower than debentures. Convertible Bonds – A type of debenture that may be converted to a share of stock at a later date. This special feature allows for a relatively lower interest rate, because of the lower risk of default (the lender may elect to convert to common stock) i. Stock – An instrument that signifies an ownership position (the stock holder owns a portion of the company). A stockholder is entitle to rights of ownership of a business, such as the right to receive a portion of the profits, and the right to vote for the company’s board of directors, or for certain issues in the governance of the company. i. Efficient market hypothesis – Theory of Eugene Fama formulated in the sixties. It states that the prices of stocks in the stock markets have taken all relevant information into consideration already – that is, prices discount all information – so that it is impossible to beat the market by trying to buy stocks at undervalued levels. Stock

Monday, October 28, 2019

Language Processing and Production Essay Example for Free

Language Processing and Production Essay This experiment investigated hemispheric specialisation and dominance with regards to language functions. It used a computer program to measure the amount of key presses achieved by participants in a given time across four different trials (1 with the left hand, no talking, 2 with the left hand whilst being asked questions, and the same two trials again with the right hand). The participants were 2nd year psychology students from which a cohort of 20 was selected for data analysis. A significant difference was found for the effect of hemisphere and language processing task present or absent. However, the means for each trial did not support left hemispheric dominance for language functions: more key presses were recorded when talking and using the right hand than when talking and using the left. Handedness and some involvement of the right hemisphere in language processing and production were also shown as appearing to influence the results obtained. The main conclusion to be drawn is that hemispheric specialisation and language dominance is a subject that needs further investigation in order to clarify the generalisability of conclusions made about left hemisphere language specialisations. Our brain consists of two halves; the left hemisphere and the right hemisphere. The left hemisphere receives information from and controls muscles in the right side of the body, whilst the right hemisphere receives information from and controls muscles in the left side of the body. Research using brain imagery and studies of brain damaged and split brain patients, to name just a few examples, has shown that some of our functions are controlled more by one hemisphere than the other, i.e. are more specialised for that particular function. This experiment aims to investigate these differing specialisations of the hemispheres more deeply and with particular regard to language. Research into language differences between the two hemispheres is widespread and supports the view that the left hemisphere is the more dominant. Marc Dax was the first to notice hemispheric differences in his brain damaged patients, after having seen many patients suffering from loss of speech. Dax found what appeared to be an association between the loss of speech and the side of the brain where the damage occurred. In more than 40 patients with aphasia, Dax noticed damage to the left hemisphere; he was unable to find a case that involved damage to the right hemisphere alone (Springer and Deutsch, 1998, p. 1-2). By 1870 further evidence also began to surface, when other investigators began to realise that many types of language disorders could result from damage to the left hemisphere (Springer Deutsch, 1998, p. 1). For example, Brocas and Wernickes aphasia: Brocas aphasia causes speech problems associated with comprehension, resulting from damage to Brocas area (situated in the left frontal cortex), whilst Wernickes aphasia causes word salad (hard to understand, jumbled speech), resulting from damage to Wernickes area (situated in the left temporal lobe). Later research has also supported Daxs original findings, one example of such research concluded that the left hemisphere is responsible for language in almost all right-handed individuals (Butler, S. R. 1997, p. 187). This research also links the additional factor of handedness to investigations of hemispheric lateralisation, an idea which has been supported by others in the field. For example: In right handers , it is almost always the case that the hemisphere that controls the dominant hand is also the hemisphere that controls speech (Springer and Deutsch, 1998, p. 2), therefore it is possible that for left handers, as their dominant hand is being controlled by the right hemisphere, the right hemisphere may be responsible for speech control and other language functions instead of the left hemisphere. Additional research looking at right hemisphere lesions has demonstrated that the right hemisphere is responsible for some linguistical functions: finding that patients with such lesions may be impaired relative to normal controls on certain tests of language (Corballis, C. M. 1983, p. 33). One study by Lesser (1974) reported such an impairment on a semantic test involving comprehension of spoken words but not on a phonological or syntactic test (Corballis, C. M. 1983, p. 33), suggesting a small role for the right hemisphere in language processing. Kinsbourne and McMurray carried out valuable research using healthy participants, using a procedure similar to the current study (cited in Kalat, 2004, pg. 427). They asked participants to tap with a pencil on a piece of paper as many times as they could in one minute, first with their right hand then with their left, then asked them to do the same again whilst talking, they found that for most right-handers, talking decreases the tapping rate with the right hand more than with the left hand. This further supports left hemispheric dominance for language, as well as supporting the current studys methodology and informing its hypothesis. As has been demonstrated most research supports left hemispheric dominance of language functions, but also links hemispheric specialisation with other factors and accepts that the right hemisphere holds some language comprehension control. This experiment looks for further supportive evidence and also briefly looks at handedness as a possible affecting factor. The study uses a finger tapping and language processing task, with the notion that the speed at which keys are pressed will be relatively similar with both hands. If however, if it is the case that language is more associated with the left hemisphere, then on average when processing language, the speed of the right hand will be slower than the left hand, presumably because the left hemisphere then has to do two tasks at once (right hand finger tapping and language processing). This is only the case however if all participants in the experiment have left hemisphere dominance for language, and is thus the reason we have recorded the handedness of our participants. As a result of previous studies and research the hypothesis for this experiment is: there will be differences in the number of taps made from each of the two hands when language is or isnt being processed. Method Design The experiment used a fully repeated measures within-subjects design: all participants took part in all conditions. There was one independent variable, consisting of four different levels: left hand, talking, no talking and right hand talking, no talking. The dependent variable was the number of key presses made within the time limit of 30 seconds per trial.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

A Career as a Physician :: Your Career as a Doctor

Doctors can pursue many career paths, including private practice, university-hospital work, or a job with a health maintenance organization. The first lets the physician be his own boss. The second offers him the opportunity to divide his work between treatment, research and instruction, in varying proportions. The third means he work for a large corporation, which provides him with patients and handles most of the administrative and business tasks that physicians in private practice have to handle on their own. Doctors can also work in inner-city clinics or in rural areas, where shortages of doctors exist. Doctors can be general practitioners or they can specialize in internal medicine, cardiology, endocrinology, neurology, oncology, sports medicine, or one of the many other specialties. Medicine is a very rewarding profession, but it is hard work. Doctors are often exhilarated when they know they have helped someone get well and devastated when they lose a patient. It is a job that can prey upon a physician physically and mentally. Since the average patient is not a doctor, physicians must not only be able to communicate difficult, often painful information to those in their care, but also they must learn how to interpret their patients' needs. They must relate to their patients as people and not reduce them to just the illness that needs to be treated. One element of this is collaborating with their patients to determine the best course of treatment for them as individuals. This requires patience, empathy, and compassion. "Compassion," said one doctor, "is absolutely necessary." In college, enroll in a pre-med program. Volunteer to work at a local hospital or with the emergency medical services. During the last year of college, apply for medical school and take the MCAT. The four-year program at medical school encompasses clinical work and book learning, with two years in the classroom and two in the clinical setting. Some of the usual courses are pathology, pharmacology, neuroanatomy, biochemistry, physiology, histology (the anatomy of tissues), and gross anatomy (cadaver class). Clinical study takes place at local hospitals or medical practices. Students are expected to offer diagnoses and suggest courses of treatment in real-life situations, although an MD/instructor makes the final decisions. In standard programs, students enter clinical clerkships in their third year and, in their fourth year, they can choose among various elective subspecialties.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

The Handmaid’s Tale – Margaret Atwood – Consider the way Atwood presents Professor Pieixoto’s conference speech in the’Historical Notes’

The anti-utopian novel, ‘The Handmaid's Tale', tells the futuristic story of Offred, a Handmaid of the oppressive Gileadean regime, a society immune to any form of external influence and governed by an elite. It is the ‘Historical Notes' at the end of the novel that help the reader to put one woman's autobiographical record into historical perspective by acting as an epilogue to the tale of Offred. Although not part of Offred's narrative, the notes are part of the novel, working as an essential supplement to the story in a hope to answer some of the many unanswered questions evoked throughout the novel. The notes stand as a framework with which one can use to reflect on Offred's narrative from a point in the distant future, where Gilead is long gone, along with all of the main characters of story. The ‘Historical Notes' are a transcript of a convention held in 2195, two-hundred years after Offred's existence, taking place at the University of Denay, Nunavit in Arctic Canada. The symposium is lead by a male archivist from the University of Cambridge named Professor Pieixoto, proving the notes to be of a view from outside of America. The introduction to the main text of the notes is light, whilst prefacing the main speaker, along with the works for which he is recognised. The main work for which he is recognised is that entitled â€Å"Iran and Gilead: Two Late-Twentieth-Century Monotheocracies, as Seen Through Diaries†, Iran being a country that imposed severe restrictions on the freedom of women and so has a direct link to Gilead. It is ironic that Iran and the United States are famous enemies yet impose similar restrictions upon their people. The name of the university has great significance for the reader as although it's set in one of the first aboriginal self-governing territory in Canada, ‘Denay Nunavit' is also a pun of ‘Deny none of it', in reference to the story as told by Offred. It is through this play on words by Atwood, that the reader is advised to believe Offred's story, whatever explanations or misinterpretations may be offered by the professors, in the ‘Historical Notes'. The Chair of the conference is a woman professor called Maryann Cresent Moon, her name indicating that she is a member of the Native people, along with her associate Professor Johnny Running Dog, suggesting that both women and Native people have substantial status at this point in the future. She begins the conference by addressing the students with notices about several other talks and expeditions taking place, and the reader can grasp that the fact the students go on nature walks and can eat fish, â€Å"Arctic Char†, from the sea, suggests an unpolluted environment contrasting that of Gilead. Professor Cresent Moon goes on to introduce the succeeding speaker, prefacing him along with his work, allowing Professor Pieixoto to then take the stand. Although this epilogue is set two hundred years in the future, it is through her speech that the Professor Cresent Moon reveals that the society of 2195 is more familiar to the society of today than the times of Gilead. However, there are also subtle differences to our society, as primarily, the culture that is presented in the future is characterised by non-Caucasian cultures seemingly studying Caucasian culture, the evidence provided through the names of the professors giving talks, such as Professor Gopal Chatterjee and Professor Johnny Running Dog. Traditionally, Western academia has been characterised by Caucasians studying anthropology, eastern philosophy and eastern religions and so much of the beginning section of the notes, spoken by Professor Cresent Moon, hints a mild ridicule of current academic practice by Atwood. Despite the advances in non-Caucasian academia, the male perspective of the Professor Pieixoto is typical of the historical male dominance and perspective in academic research and seemingly, it's through his seminar that Atwood satirises the methodology and manners of a male academic historian. Professor Pieixoto's jokes about ‘tail' and ‘Frailroads', instead of Femaleroads, have a sexist tone, indicating that sexist attitudes have not changed in the two hundred years that have passed since Offred's time. It is in this context that the nature of the professor's name has meaning as Atwood got the name ‘Pieixoto' from a Brazilian novel where it is the name of a character who continually is reincarnated in the same form. It is here that Professor Pieixoto demonstrates the same masculinist characteristics as those who created the Gilead regime, who had modelled themselves on the Old Testament patriarchs. Pieixoto starts by locating a historical context for Offred's story and goes on to tell his audience that the tale, later titled ‘The Handmaid's Tale' in tribute to Geoffrey Chaucer's ‘Canterbury Tales', came in the form of thirty cassette tapes that were discovered in Maine, in a sealed army footlocker near what used to be the Underground Femaleroad. We are told that each of the tapes began with several songs, â€Å"as camouflage, no doubt†, in order to disguise the nature of the recordings and that the same voice speaks on all of the recordings. Pieixoto also discusses the difficulties in reconstructing the narrative as the tapes were not numbered nor arranged in any particular order, along with the problems associated with the speaker's old-fashioned accent. Therefore, the professors transcribing the story had to guess the intended chronology of the tapes and this provides an explanation for the interrupted structure of the narrative. For all of Pieixoto's detailed account of how he came about Offred's story, he seems to lack concern for Offred as an individual and is more concerned in implementing the authenticity of her tale and its worth as impartial historical evidence. He seemingly avoids the moral issues raised by Offred, claiming â€Å"our job is not to censure but to understand† and most obviously, he is more interested in establishing the identity of her Commander than Offred herself. Surprisingly, Pieixoto cautions his patrons against judging the Gileadean regime too severely, as judgements on events in history are â€Å"culture-specific†. Furthermore, he seems to attempt to justify the establishment of Gilead by claiming that it was under a large amount of pressure due to the rapidly declining birth rate and environmental depravity. Pieixoto goes on to talk about the falling birth rate, elaborating on the reasons that caused it such as abortion, birth control, sexually transmitted diseases and also miscarriages that resulted from exposure to nuclear waste. Using the Bible as a justification, he explains how Gilead rounded up a collection of fertile women by pronouncing all second marriages and non-marital relationships illegal, confiscating the children of these relationships and allowing the women to take on the role of â€Å"walking wombs†. Similarly, Pieixoto clarifies of how Gilead adopted the regime of what he calls â€Å"simultaneous polygamy† rather than â€Å"serial polygamy†, taking inspiration from the Biblical story of Rachel and Leah. Pieixoto explains that similarly to all new systems, Gilead drew on the past for inspiration in creating its ideology. Specifically, he mentions the racial strains that troubled pre-Gileadean America, which Gilead embodied in its main principles, and later talks of how the idea of dumping â€Å"more than one boatload of Jews† into the Atlantic Ocean was one of the ideas dreamt up by one of the two possible Commanders of Offred. It is here that Pieixoto talks of his and his fellow Professor Wade's interest in identifying the author of the tape, but due to her name being concealed by the Gileadean patronym, he's unable to tell the reader anything new about Offred, her life before, within or after the Gileadean regime. However, it is noticeable to the reader than Pieixoto is more interested in identifying the Commander of Offred, as perhaps by discovering his identity and more about him, he can so do the same for Offred. After attempting to research the names used by Offred in her story, after having no leads, Pieixoto comes to the conclusion that the names such as ‘Moira', ‘Luke' and ‘Janine' must have been pseudonyms, in order to protect those that she loved. The two possibilities that Pieixoto offers as the Commander's real identities are Frederick Waterford and B. Frederick Judd, both men leaders of the early Gileadean regime and instrumental figures in the structuring and establishment of Gilead. He runs through what both men contributed to Gilead, starting with Frederick Waterford, revealing that he was â€Å"responsible for the design of the female costumes† and came up with the idea that the Handmaids should be branded by the colour red. He was also responsible for some of the names of the events practiced in Gilead, such as ‘Particution' and ‘Salvaging', taking his inspiration from events in the past, along with the design for the Handmaids costume, which resembled the uniforms of German prisoners of war during WW2. Judd on the other hand is credited with devising the form of the Particution ceremony, rather than the name, and proposed the idea that the Handmaids should be governed by women as he believed that â€Å"the best and most cost-effective way to control women for reproductive and other purposes was through women themselves†. He was also responsible for the dumping of the Jews into the ocean. Although both were childless, there is more evidence to support Frederick Waterford in being Offred's Commander as although his wife wasn't called ‘Serena Joy' or ‘Pam', but instead ‘Thelma', he was into market research and was involved in one of the earliest purges of Gilead after being accused of â€Å"being in possession of†¦ heretical pictorial and literary materials†, as well as â€Å"harbouring a subversive†. However, although all of this evidence points towards him, Pieixoto explains that because historical details of Gilead are few due to the fact that the destruction of records was a regular practice during the purge, it's unlikely that they can be certain of her identity of her Commander as Frederick Waterford. Pieixoto concludes on the note that the final fate of Offred is unknown, and that she may have been recaptured, reached Canada or could have even made her way to England. What he notes as surprising is that if she did escape to Canada or England, why she didn't make her story public, although he recognises that Offred may have wanted to protect what family and friends she had left. However, the aforementioned ‘subversive' is thought to be Nick, a member of both the Eyes and the Mayday movement, and that the men he called in at the end of the novel were sent in order to rescue Offred. The final sentence of the speech, â€Å"Are there any questions? thereby invites the reader to question the issues raised, having heard the two opposite perspectives, by Offred's narrative and the addition of the ‘Historical Notes'. It is at this point that the novel undertakes a moral tone, typical of dystopian literature. The ‘Historical Notes' alter the readers perspective of Offred and her tale, as it can be recognised that she is no longer a living human but an anonymous voice. It appears to the reader that Professor Pieixoto seems to doubt the tes timony of Offred and he attempts to discredit her by claiming her not to have paid attention to the more important issues going on at the time. For the reader, it seems as though Pieixoto has not taken notice of what Offred chose to tell, a tale of suffering and persecution within the regime, and this results in the reader feeling as though the professor is not only paying attention to the wrong things but is also belittling her story. Pieixoto's version of Offred seems surprisingly inept in warmth, humour and the genuine human emotion expressed that the reader will have felt from reading Offred's testament and so ironically, as Offred had predicted, â€Å"from the point of view of history, we'll be invisible†, Pieixoto has partly erased her from history. The narrative technique of the ‘Historical Notes' is entirely different to that of Offred's story, in terms of both its form and language, and so the change in voice from the personal account by Offred to the rather generalised and removed version by Professor Pieixoto forces the reader to take a more moralistic view of what he or she has just read. The historical glance back at Gilead, what preceded it and what was happening in other parts of the world at the same time, has the effect of drawing the experience of Offred much closer to home for the reader. It is unsettling to learn that the Gileadean practices were based on real practices formerly or currently in existence and this serves as a warning by Atwood that the reality of Gilead is not as far away as it seemed when reading Offred's account. After the abrupt ending of the main text of the novel with its leap into the unknown, the epilogue follows and the ‘Historical Notes' are simultaneously a welcome objective explanation of the Gileadean society, a parody of academic conferences and offensive to the reader. The notes are a shock to the readers, as they have just gone through the emotional ups and downs of Offred's account, suffering her torments with her, and is therefore shocking, as intended by Atwood, to hear Offred's life discussed in front of an amused audience, joked about and treated as a quaint relic. The significance of the ‘Historical Notes' to the novel as a whole is that they provide an open ending for the journey which Atwood takes the reader on, allowing each reader to have a different interpretation on the fate of Offred and the other main characters of the novel. It is the last line of the novel, â€Å"Are there any questions? † that signals to the reader that the fate of Offred is debatable, and an ending like this causes the story to stay with the reader some time after finishing reading it, as the ending is left up to the reader to decide upon.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Martin Luther King Jr’s “A Time to Break Silence” Essay

Dr. Martin Luther King Jrs essay A Time to Break Silence was a small but significant piece of his life and career as a minister, Nobel Peace Prize winner, husband, father, civil rights activist, president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, and an important historical figure for future generations. In this essay, Dr. King discusses why the Vietnam War is important to him. He starts with his first reason, is that he felt like the military had given a promise of hope to the poor, when the government didnt really have the funds or intentions to fulfill their dreams. He felt that the war was almost like an attack on the poor, because it lured them to their death, in a sense. His second reason is recognizing the reality of the war and its impact on the families it affected. Again, he felt like it was an attack on the poor, and especially African Americans, because the government thought they were good enough to fight with white soldiers, leave their families, and die for the country, but not good enough to ride the same bus, go to the same, schools, or have the same equality. Thirdly, he writes about how people need a deeper understanding of war, and need to know that it wont solve all of their problems. He then delves into the fact that although he is a civil rights leader, he still cares about these issues because of the people that it affects. He this talks about the responsibility he carries by receiving the Nobel Peace Prize, and how he feels that it is similar to a commission, and a commitment to work harder for the brotherhood of man. He then goes on to speak about his religious feelings towards the war, and says that it is a privilege and a burden to be human. In the last line of his Importance of Vietman segment, he says For no documents from human hands can make these humans any less our brothers. I feel that his quote has multiple meanings. Taken from his religious views, he follows the teachings of Christ, who is supposed to be the voice for the weak, the voiceless, the victims, ect. I feel this quote also refers to his moral views of treating people equally, and believing that no matter what race, all humans deserve  respect. He begins the next segment of his essay, Strange Liberators, he speaks of his compassion for the people affected by the war. He wonders what the Vietnamese people think of America , and talks about how the U.S government oppressed the Vietamese people because the U.S didnt feel like they were ready for the freedom of running their own government. The U.S and French government poured money into controlling Vietnam , and the U.S ended up paying most of the expenses. This segment basically analyzes the hypocrisy of the U.S, because they were destroying lives and communities, and not actually focusing on liberating Vietnam . The Vietnamese people were treated poorly, and faced the choice of a concentration camp or death. Dr. King compares the treatment of the Vietnamese people to that of the Jews by Germany under Hitlers rule. Dr. King then proclaims that the madness and suffering of the Vietnamese people must end for things to move forward. He speaks of how the war will make the world see America as a place of militarism and violence. He then brings up things that he thinks would help to end the conflicts, such as stopping bombing, removing foreign troops, and accepting the realities of the war. In his next segment, Protesting the War, Dr. King talks about churches, synagogues, and communities bonding together to protest the war, and how American government officials are making peace impossible because they arent willing to give up overseas investments. He feels that America is too materialistic, and that a true revolution of values would soon change the ideals of the people, because war is not the way to peace, justice, and love. He felt that if change was not made, America would approach a spiritual death. He felt that rather than bombing to end communism, America shouldve tried to make positive steps to defeating communism. In the last segment of his this essay, The People are Important, Dr. King says that we must support the revolutions, and make the final analysis of our loyalties. He says that love is the ultimate force of life, and is a  necessity for man. He says that we can no longer afford to hate. Henry Thoreaus essay Civil Disobedience is similar to Dr. Kings, becauseThoreau also feels like the government is run by the majorities, and not the conscious of the people. He feels that the majorities decide right and wrong in the government, and that it is unfair and unjust. Like Dr. King, Thoreau feels that the military is just a tool to the government, disposable lives, an army of machines. Thoreau disagrees with the government, and feels like it is too involved in peoples lives. In conclusion, both essays relate well and give evidence of the wrong doings and mistakes of the government at their time period, and that have and will carry into the future. Work Cited/ Bibliography: King, Martin Luther. A Time to Break Silence. Literature and Society. Ed. Annas, Pamela J. and Rosen, Robert C. Upper Saddle River , New Jersey : Pearson Education Inc, 2007. 1098-1103. Thoreau, Henry. Civil Disobediance. Literature and Society. Ed. Annas, Pamela J. and Rosen, Robert C. Upper Saddle River , New Jersey : Pearson Education Inc, 2007. 1423-.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

The Hunger Games Book Series

The Hunger Games Book Series The Hunger Games Trilogy  is a particularly dark and gripping series of dystopian novels by Suzanne Collins, published by Scholastic Press. Overview The United States no longer exists. Instead, there is the nation of Panem, governed by a totalitarian government. The government keeps the residents of the 12 outlying districts intimidated with its strict rules and demonstrates its power over life and death with the annual Hunger Games. All of the residents of the 12 districts are required to watch the Hunger Games, the ultimate reality show, which is a life or death â€Å"game† involving two representatives from each district. The protagonist of The Hunger Games series is Katniss Everdeen, a 16-year-old girl who lives with her mother and her little sister. Katniss is very protective of her sensitive little sister, Prim, whom she loves very much. Katniss helps feed and support her family by hunting in areas designated off-limits by the government and bartering some of the meat on the black market. When her sister’s name is drawn as a contestant in the Hunger Games, Katniss volunteers to take her place, and things go from bad to worse. There are no easy answers as Katniss deals with the violent Hunger Games and the dramatic results. Things are not always straightforward, and Katniss has to deal with a multitude of ethical issues as she struggles to survive. Tension builds in each book of the series, leaving the reader eager to read the next book. The ending of the trilogy in no way ties everything up in a neat bow and makes it right, but it is an ending that will stay with the reader and continue to provoke thoughts and questions. Objections to The Hunger Games (Book One) According to the  Ã¢â‚¬â€¹Ã¢â‚¬â€¹American Library Association, The Hunger Games (Book One) is number 5 on the list of the ten most challenged books of 2010 (What’s a challenge?). The reasons given were â€Å"sexually explicit, unsuited to age group, and violence.† (Source: American Library Association) Like a great many other people, I was surprised at the â€Å"sexually explicit† challenge and don’t understand what the challenger was referring to. While there is indeed a lot of violence in The Hunger Games, it is inherent to the story rather than gratuitous violence and is used to make an anti-violence point. Recommended Ages The Hunger Games trilogy may or may not be appropriate for some teens, not as a matter of age group, but depending on their interests, maturity level, and sensitivity to violence (including death) and other tough issues. I would recommend it for mature teens 12 and older, as well as adults and think they will find the trilogy to be both thought-provoking and engrossing. Awards, Recognition   The Hunger Games, the first book in the Hunger Games trilogy, has won more than 20 state awards for teen books. It was on the American Library Associations Top Ten Best Books for Young Adults, Quick Picks for Reluctant Young Adult Readers and Amelia Bloomer Project lists for 2009 and was awarded a 2008 CYBIL Award - Fantasy/Science Fiction. Catching Fire (Hunger Games Trilogy, Book 2) is on the ALAs 2010 Best Books for Young Adults and won the 2010 Childrens Choice Book Award: Teen Choice Book of the Year and 2010 Indies Choice Award Winner, Young Adult. Books in the Hunger Games Series The Hunger Games  (Book 1, Hunger Games Trilogy).Hardcover, 384 pages (Scholastic Press, 2008. ISBN: 9780439023481)Catching Fire  (Book 2, Hunger Games Trilogy).Hardcover, 400 pages (Scholastic Press, 2009. ISBN: 9780439023498)Mockingjay  (Book 3 in the Hunger Games Trilogy).Hardcover, 400 pages (Scholastic Press, 2010. ISBN: 9780439023511) Available Formats: Hardcover, large print hardcover (Book One and Book Two only), paperback (Book One only), audiobook on CD, audio for download and eBook for various eReaders. The Hunger Games Trilogy is also available in a boxed set of hardbound editions (Scholastic Press, 2010. ISBN: 9780545265355) Categories: Adventure, fantasy and science fiction, dystopian novels, young adult (YA) fiction, teen books

Monday, October 21, 2019

Crazy and Creative Cheating Tricks in Exams †

Crazy and Creative Cheating Tricks in Exams Many students use a bunch of cheating tricks in exams. It may look a wrong deal, but it helps students gaining high academic results. Students prefer numerous exam cheating techniques. Many ways of cheating in an exam are quite common. Those scholars, who know how important their study results can be for their further academic success, try plenty of creative and exceptional techniques. Cheating is a challenge. It requires good preparation and advanced skills. Beginners use this chance to skip learning process and get great results no matter of time spent on education. Many clever learners generate creative unparalleled ideas. They tend to develop amazing ways of double-dealing at school or college. Creative Exam Cheating Techniques Modern students know countless remarkable cheating tricks in exams. Their exam cheating techniques are impressive and unparalleled. A trick with a water bottle is probably one of the most popular ways of school exams double-dealing. It is easy to cheat and not be caught. You should simply write test answers on the backside of bottle’s label. You may write down all answers, comments, and solutions to your paper by simply watching at the bottle you put on your desk and copying them. Just read your prepared notes. Lettering small notes on fingernails remains  best way to cheat in exam used mostly by school and college girls. You can use pen or pencil writing. It is a challenge. Writing answers at nails and staying able to read these tiny records remains thought-provoking method. Keep your fingers away from teachers! Inside ridge of your hat is a good place to site questions. You can wear a baseball cap on your head, and people may never notice its hidden side. Cover your head with clever thoughts written! Stay away from this duplicitous way, if you have not used wearing baseball or other hats to school on the everyday basis because it looks suspicious. If you know the exact place where the examination will be held, make sure to visit this control place beforehand. It may give you time for preparation. Writing answers on the desk will be a solution. Desk modifications at classroom will allow leaving answers and solutions to the most difficult questions or at least one single question. Writing your tests solutions at your thighs and knees can be effective if you adore wearing skirts. It is rather girls’ mission. It is a won strategy. Do not distract your classmates once looking at your prepared notes or you may grab an attention of your teacher. Modern Inventive Cheating Techniques Modern methods of double-dealing provide students with a chance to keep tiny notes and read answers secretly. Hide your small notes carefully. Act always naturally. You know all advanced modern secret methods, and each of ways of cheating in an exam is not familiar to your professor. It will work if you follow instructions. The known Kleenex notebook is a chance for a student. This technique allows hiding solutions written at Kleenex napkin, which you may take of your purse or backpack when coughing or sneezing. Do not reach it repeatedly. Take a piece of paper and print some answers and information you may bring to bear during your school examination. Use clear tape to put solutions. Stick it on your hand or clothes. Be aware to get rid of evidence once you have written your theory test answers and fulfilled your sheet. It is easy to cover notes with your sleeves. Hope people will miss noticing your special method. Searching for the best ways of cheating in an exam, you can find a bunch of unparalleled decisions. Impressions are hard, but effective method. If you know your teacher will give you a piece of scratch white paper, then turn to the following flimflam. Carve your answers, comments, and views on a piece of paper, but put one underneath to get clear impressions. You may do it easily. It is a perfect way to hide solutions. When looking at the black paper, people will never discover you look at responses by checking typed impressions. Using sunglasses is effective. Glasses used as a mirror allow catching reflections and seeing solutions written by your classmate, who sits next to you. It is a long process that requires lots of skills. Face a simple fact that every flimflam, fake action, and a double-dealing procedure is risky matter. How to Follow Cheating Tricks and Methods Using a calculator to deal with math issues is not a prodigious example of successful academic scheme. You will feel less confident with such actions. To stay invisible with own advanced double-dealing methods, every student needs to learn many schemes and practice them before scheduled theory test. This is the easiest part. Dealing with real situation, when you need to use all your double-dealing skills and patterns is much more difficult. To guarantee unnoticed and successful dissimulation at a test, keep following the next pieces of  advice: Never use an eraser. It is impractical and excessively obvious using stuff. Keep away from bringing out your secret notes immediately after the start of school, college or university examination. It will not look well staring at familiar items. Remember to add tiny notes to your clothes. Write solutions at your baseball hat, sweater sleeves or another piece of clothes you wear to school. Write down responses on turn side of a paper, avoid front.   Impressions are more beneficial than obvious follow-ups, tiny notes, and copies because they are visible on a blank paper sheet. Read special articles about school and college double-dealing. Subscribe to get the most innovative and creative ways of school manipulates by adding your mail address to a CENSUS and Nces.Ed.Gov list of subscribers. Be always aware of light advanced false wiles. Remember to turn to effective advanced manipulating techniques and modern double-dealing wiles that bring positive outcomes. Avoid using unpractical methods. Every your decision needs to be assured by successful previous usage of the way practiced. Successful ways of cheating are always characterized by following features: Clearness; Convenience; Easiness; Effectiveness; Efficiency. Generating new actions and methods is useful. When a teacher has no idea what you are planning, you can easily false him and get a high grade without proper study hours. Keep aware of professor’s attention. Teachers may look bored, indifferent or tired, but they are still keeping checking on you. Students may be clever. Teachers have enough own manipulating things. Many modern ways of manipulating with results are unserviceable if you cannot deal with your anxiousness and worriedness during important final test. Get rid of your fear. You can win this battle. Staying aware of a bunch of modern cheating techniques is beneficial for those students, who have no time or desire to study. Dealing with school, college or university theory tests is a challenge. When trying to skip study process, learners need to show unparalleled creative skills aimed at solving question papers easily without proper knowledge. It is a personal contest. Sometimes, it is easier to learn all materials and theory to pass a final test than creating numerous efficient fraudulent practices. Take your time to choose your way! Our list of inventive cheating tricks will help you anyway if you only follow instructions provided. Get your highest grades easily with our operational tips!

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Chemicals That Should Never Be Mixed

Chemicals That Should Never Be Mixed Some chemicals shouldnt be mixed together. In fact, these chemicals shouldnt even be stored near each other on the chance that an accident could occur and the chemicals could react. Be sure to keep incompatibilities in mind when reusing containers to store other chemicals. Here are some examples of mixtures to avoid: Acids with cyanide salts or cyanide solution. Generates highly toxic hydrogen cyanide gas.Acids with sulfide salts or sulfide solutions. Generates highly toxic hydrogen sulfide gas.Acids with bleach. Generates highly toxic chlorine gas. An example of this would be mixing bleach and vinegar.Ammonia with bleach. Releases toxic chloramine vapors.Oxidizing acids (e.g., nitric acid, perchloric acid) with combustible materials (e.g., paper, alcohols, other common solvents). May result in a fire.​Solid oxidizers (e.g., permanganates, iodates, nitrates) with combustible materials (e.g., paper, alcohols, other common solvents). May result in a fire.Hydrides (e.g., sodium hydride) with water. May form flammable hydrogen gas.Phosphides (e.g., sodium phosphide) with water. May form highly toxic phosphine gas.Silver salts with ammonia in the presence of a strong base. May generate an explosively unstable solid.Alkali metals (e.g., sodium, potassium) with water. May form flammable hydrogen gas.Oxidizing agents (e.g., nitric acid) with reducing agents (e.g., hydrazine). May cause fires or explosions. Unsaturated compounds (e.g., substances containing carbonyls or double bonds) in the presence of acids or bases. May polymerize violently.Hydrogen peroxide/acetone mixtures when heated in the presence of an acid. May cause explosions.Hydrogen peroxide/acetic acid mixtures. May explode upon heating.Hydrogen peroxide/sulfuric acid mixtures. May spontaneously detonate. General Advice About Mixing Chemicals While it may seem like chemistry is a good science to learn through experimentation, its never a good idea to randomly mix together chemicals to see what youll get. Household chemicals arent any safer than lab chemicals. In particular, you should use care when dealing with cleaners and disinfectants, since these are common products that react with each other to yield nasty results. Its a good rule of thumb to avoid mixing bleach or peroxide with any other chemical, unless youre following a documented procedure, are wearing protective gear, and are working under a fume hood or outdoors. Note that many chemical mixtures produce toxic or flammable gases. Even in the home, its important to have a fire extinguisher handy and work with ventilation. Use caution performing any chemical reaction near an open flame or heat source. In the lab, avoid mixing chemicals near burners. At home, avoid mixing chemicals near burners, heaters, and open flames. This includes pilot lights for ovens, fireplaces, and water heaters. While its common to label chemicals and store them separately in a lab, its also good practice to do this in a home. For example, dont store muriatic acid (hydrochloric acid) with peroxide. Avoid storing household bleach together with peroxide and acetone.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Sexuality Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Sexuality - Research Paper Example In recent years, diverse authors in critical applied linguistics have highlighted various dimensions of power inequalities in the exploration of social identities (e.g., Varney, 2002; Simon-Maeda, 2004). The contribution of this critical approach has highlighted the need to challenge the reproduction of unjust power relations. It has also suggested strategies for empowerment and social transformation. However, this approach has been limited, to some extent, in its applicability to issues of gender and sexuality due to the influence of social constructionism. Mohr (1992) defines a radical social constructionist perspective as one that posits human beings as "blank slates" whose behaviors are determined by the influence of environmental factors. Mohr criticizes what he sees as a disregard for evidence of the role of biological factors in matters of gender and of sexuality. However, an acute focus on biological dimensions also has significant limitations. Sears (1997) evokes this problem in his analysis of sexuality education in most Western educational contexts: "Relying heavily on biology and side-stepping issues of morality, teachers seldom employ the social sciences and the arts to explore the labyrinthine social structures of sexuality and gender" (pp. 275-276). Dimensions of morality, emotional depth, non-conscious processes, and individual imagination in gender and sexuality are sometimes lost in approaches where subjects seem to be determined either by biology or by their participation in language and culture. In his article on agency and identity issues surrounding sexuality, Phillips (1996) remarks that social constructionism is now "[T]he dominant paradigm, indeed orthodoxy, within gay and lesbian cultural studies" (p. 105). This paradigm has limited success in initiating dialogue on gender and sexuality issues with those who conceptualize and experience their own sex and sexuality as solid facts, rather than the cumulative product of socio-cultural acts (Mohr, 1992). While Nelson (1999) lauds queer theory's slogan of "acts not facts," it has to be noted that the reverse position-facts, not acts- seems to be the perspective of the majority of practitioners in education. Indeed, Phillips argues that many students also feel this way with regard to their sense of self for sexual identities. On the one hand, then, there is a body of literature in critical applied linguistics and in queer studies (e.g. Perrotti & Westheimer, 2001; Wyss, 2004) that asserts a social constructionist perspective on gender and sexuality identities. The basis for this approach is often taken from a type of psychoanalytic drives theory that accords primal positivity to all expressions of sexual desire. This dominant perspective in academic spheres seems to have little potential for changing the contrasting perspectives of the majority of participants in education, and in society at large, where attention to the moral dimension of sexuality issues is prevalent. This perspective finds no point of connection with discourses that specify few moral parameters in considering diverse issues of sexuality such as the age-of-consent for minors,

Trade in Energy and Energy Security Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Trade in Energy and Energy Security - Essay Example Furthermore, it is his or her legal obligation to maintain the safety and welfare of the patient. During the sixties, several issues emerged, which concentrated on questioning and challenging the standard traditions and values of society. One such issue was that of patients, who was in permanent vegetative state. The question arose whether a doctor had the right to withdraw from treating such patients without the consent of the guardians? Persistent vegetative state is considered to be that state of human mind, in which the patient is in coma and has advanced towards â€Å"the condition of partial arousal†1. The term was introduced and developed in the seventies by Jennet and Plum. The aim of this paper is to analyze the legal charges against a doctor, who had refused to treat a patient, who had been in a vegetative state for more than three years, in the lights of broad and diverse academic resources. Overview As mentioned earlier, persistent vegetative state is that conditio n, in which the human brain is severely damaged and the patient is in coma, followed by gradual movement towards â€Å"the state of wakefulness without detectable awareness†2 . ... The expression vegetable is has been used in order to define the existing condition of the human mind. Research suggests that a patient suffering from PVS can live for a very long period and therefore, he or she is not suffering from a fatal disease. On basis of ethics, philosophy and morality, the expression seeks to confront and dispute the daily beliefs and ideals of human society and the meaning of being alive6. Moreover, it clashes with the perspectives of individuality and personality. Patients suffering from this condition are stuck in a zone and thus, they do not have the ability to connect with their surroundings. Moreover, their existing state of mind does not allow them to communicate with their loved ones. From legal perspective, the term persistent vegetative state has not been defined extensively. Research suggests that the courts in United Kingdom â€Å"have required petitions before termination of life support that demonstrate that any recovery of cognitive functions above a vegetative state is assessed as impossible by authoritative medical opinion†7. In certain instances, it has been suggested that these patients must be given the authority to die peacefully because of their wakeful unconscious condition. This issue has led to several legal dilemmas and therefore, it has become essential to legally define the concept of PVS. As mentioned earlier, there is no legal definition for PVS. During the eighties, the Commission for Study of Legal and Ethical Problems in Medicine and Behavioral Research officially recognized the definition of persistent vegetative state, given by Jennett and Plum.8 The Commission attempted to

Friday, October 18, 2019

Promotional and Advertising Strategies Assignment - 2

Promotional and Advertising Strategies - Assignment Example From this discussion it is clear that  the owners of the Ford still have the primary control of their company compared to GM that is politically controlled and the federal government has some impact on the business. The two companies are very different in culture as well as their marketing strategies. For example, General Motors have pulled itself out of Facebook while Ford is making the platform to influence the world more and more. GM got assistance from the government to overcome the storm while Ford found its way to the crisis and survived.This paper outlines that  the social marketing strategy of the two companies is interesting in several ways like, while GM strives and tries to use the traditional methods in marketing their products by abandoning their Facebook account, Ford is on the other hand attempting to embrace the social platform to connect with its customers that give it a competitive edge.  Scholars have always talked about using social media as one way of reach ing the potential customers of a given product and get a lot of benefits from this strategy. Comparing these two companies, Ford has been ranked as the number one company using Facebook to help itself, their brand and the stakeholders too. Ford is said to understand the ways of reaching the new market while GM does not seem to understand these methods.  While GM tries to dictate where it wants its customers to go, Ford, on the other hand, tries to listen to its clients and make products that suit their customers' specifications.

Literature Review for Program Design Research Paper

Literature Review for Program Design - Research Paper Example By defining a structure to the program, teachers are engaged into a learning experience that they, themselves, will be reverberate in their respective schools and classrooms. The program also integrates the concept of continuing this learning process in the case of the students. The challenge is to inspire them to continually update their learning with the 5E’s of learning model after it has been imparted by the educator. The program provides a structure that extends to the classroom after the program for teacher-aimed workshops. Students are provided with a more in depth encounter with text books. Text books are then articulated by students in a personal manner which increases possibility of the comprehension of topics in textbooks. This conceptually ends in the students Science exhibit where an application of what has been learned. Literature Reference Overview The following references in this literature review include certain researches and studies that deal with learning t heories and dissertations. It also includes certain resources that expound the concept of the 5E learning method which includes early development of the program, its effectiveness and applications. Other learning theories are also taken into consideration by including their principles in creating a better understanding for the Science Educational Program that is intended to be created. Learning methods are also taken into account as minor references for the literature review of the program. Articles that talk about the need for teachers to improve in their engagement with certain methods of teaching are referred in the writing of this paper. Literature Review Proper As the main point for this review, certain references regarding in depth view for the 5E Learning Model is discussed in Bybee, Taylor et. al.’s Origin, Effectiveness and Application paper of the 5E’s in learning (2006). The 5E’s stand for; Engagement, Exploration, Explanation, Elaboration and Evaluat ion. According to Bybee (1997), the Engagement part involves how educators are to facilitate discussions for certain academic cases and lessons. This is where educators engage the students to a learning topic by asking questions that have something to do with the students’ previous knowledge of a situation. Knowledge are scanned by teacher so that previous knowledge may be reviewed and assessed by the learners and the educators alike. The Initial knowledge of a topic is discussed to identify certain cliches and information that are known by the learners beforehand. Springboard questions that would be leading the class to relating practical events that deal with the learners’ lives are highly recommended to be an effective learning experience to learners. These recommendations include activities that are indoor and outdoor in nature which leads to the second E of the learning method. Needham, et. Al (1994) also talks about the 5E method wherein The Exploration stage of the learning method invites the learners and the educators alike to embark on hands-on activities that would require beforehand preparation. These aimed to improve the comprehension of a certain Science topic that is due to be discussed. For example, if a topic that will be explored would deal with gravity and motion, an activity that would engage the students into throwing or jumping games can be prepared. This is also the

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Organisation and Behaviour Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Organisation and Behaviour - Essay Example Due to presence of such divergence in leadership effectiveness in different organizational context, in the next section, the study will dig deep in the topic in order to gain meaningful insights. Task 2 2.1 Compare the Effectiveness of Different Leadership Styles in Different Organisations Armstrong (2009) and Yukl (2009) defined leadership as the systematic or intuitive initiatives of particular individuals to inspire and motive other organizational members to hollow the direction of the particular individual which can help the entire team to achieve organizational objectives. On contrary, consideration of research work of Rees and French (2010) reveals the fact that leadership is personal characteristics of social or organizational members blended with certain skills such as charismatic personality, interactive and engaging communication styles, interpersonal skills, decision making capabilities during contingent period, showing empathy towards team members problems, team building approach and knowledge sharing capabilities. In such context, the study will compare the leadership style in British Telecom as against leadership style in Apple. ... In most of the occasions, organizational leaders in British Telecom use the transformational leadership styles in order to achieve the change objectives such as develop the global IP platform which can work in effective manner, being number 1 in terms of customer services across 170 countries of operation and increase responsiveness throughout the value chain operation (Ukwon, 2008). In such context, leaders of British Telecom used transformational leadership style by involving the employees during contingent decision phases in order to deploy change initiatives such as, 1- implement new internal trading model, 2- develop new organizational structure, 3- integrate a global business operation model, 4- implement faster re-engineering process, 5- extend worldwide 21CN IP platform and 6- develop knowledge sharing collaborative culture within organization (Ukwon, 2008). As part of transformational leadership culture in British Telecom (BT), a team has been developed to measure Organisati onal Culture Index (OCI) while as part of transformational leadership in BT, sub-leadership styles like aggressive defensive, passive defensive and constructive were adopted by managers. In case of transformational leadership style in British Telecom (BT), leaders shown some common characteristics such as encouraging team members to communicate with each other for knowledge sharing, delivering customer focused solutions, encouraging best practice, identifying strategic priorities (Ukwon, 2008). On contrary, in case of Apple which one of the largest Consumer electronics company in the world, the concept of leadership very person specific. Steve Jobs being considered as pioneer leader for the rise and growth of Apple Inc. For Apple,

Decision Support Systems in Medicine Research Paper

Decision Support Systems in Medicine - Research Paper Example This computerized system would ease the timely calculation of the organization’s payroll and with very little chance of any errors in those calculations. Information Systems can be viewed as work systems where all activities are centered towards digital processing of data provided to them. An information system constitutes of: A Computing device, A storage device in order to store data being processed and also the outputs. Previous data bank Instructions and procedures. INFORAMTION SYSTEMS TYPES Categorically there may be several types of information systems. This categorization is with respect to the difference in the organizational levels that exist. The types may be narrated as follows: Transaction Processing Systems- example: Payroll systems, Order Processing System. Office Automation Systems- example: Word Processing Systems. Knowledge Work Systems- example: Engineering Workstation. Decision Support Systems- Clinical Support Systems. Management Information Systems  œ Sales Management Systems. Executive Support Systems – High Level Managerial Forecasting Systems MEDICAL INFORMATICS The infusion of Information Technology in the field of health and medicine has led to the rebirth of the said field. Technological advancements that have affected the field of health have affected the human society as a whole directly and have mostly proved to be beneficial rather than hazardous. Formally speaking, the definition of Medical Informatics, as quoted at, is stated as follows:   Medical Informatics  is the "scientific field that deals with biomedical information, data, and knowledge - their storage, retrieval, and optimal use for problem solving and decision making. It accordingly touches on all basic and applied fields in... According to the research medical informatics is the "scientific field that deals with biomedical information, data, and knowledge - their storage, retrieval, and optimal use for problem solving and decision making. It accordingly touches on all basic and applied fields in biomedical science and is closely tied to modern information technologies, notably in the areas of computing and communication (medical computer science)". Thus, in the light of the above-mentioned definition, medical informatics can very well be termed as the handling of data with respect to health and medicine with the assistance of computers and computer related systems. Medical information management, or simply put, the managing of all information related to health and medicine has become an integral part of the health care profession in the modern times. The present state of health and medicine cannot be executed without the involvement of information systems that are computer based. Decision support systems a re one of the types of information systems that assist in medicine. They can be termed as information systems that assist in decision making. Improved decision making can be achieved by information systems that are flexible, interactive and adaptable. Recent advancements in Health informatics pertaining specifically to the implementation of information technology in the present day hospitals is ideally referred to as a means of reduction of distress for the patient as well as the practitioner.

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Organisation and Behaviour Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Organisation and Behaviour - Essay Example Due to presence of such divergence in leadership effectiveness in different organizational context, in the next section, the study will dig deep in the topic in order to gain meaningful insights. Task 2 2.1 Compare the Effectiveness of Different Leadership Styles in Different Organisations Armstrong (2009) and Yukl (2009) defined leadership as the systematic or intuitive initiatives of particular individuals to inspire and motive other organizational members to hollow the direction of the particular individual which can help the entire team to achieve organizational objectives. On contrary, consideration of research work of Rees and French (2010) reveals the fact that leadership is personal characteristics of social or organizational members blended with certain skills such as charismatic personality, interactive and engaging communication styles, interpersonal skills, decision making capabilities during contingent period, showing empathy towards team members problems, team building approach and knowledge sharing capabilities. In such context, the study will compare the leadership style in British Telecom as against leadership style in Apple. ... In most of the occasions, organizational leaders in British Telecom use the transformational leadership styles in order to achieve the change objectives such as develop the global IP platform which can work in effective manner, being number 1 in terms of customer services across 170 countries of operation and increase responsiveness throughout the value chain operation (Ukwon, 2008). In such context, leaders of British Telecom used transformational leadership style by involving the employees during contingent decision phases in order to deploy change initiatives such as, 1- implement new internal trading model, 2- develop new organizational structure, 3- integrate a global business operation model, 4- implement faster re-engineering process, 5- extend worldwide 21CN IP platform and 6- develop knowledge sharing collaborative culture within organization (Ukwon, 2008). As part of transformational leadership culture in British Telecom (BT), a team has been developed to measure Organisati onal Culture Index (OCI) while as part of transformational leadership in BT, sub-leadership styles like aggressive defensive, passive defensive and constructive were adopted by managers. In case of transformational leadership style in British Telecom (BT), leaders shown some common characteristics such as encouraging team members to communicate with each other for knowledge sharing, delivering customer focused solutions, encouraging best practice, identifying strategic priorities (Ukwon, 2008). On contrary, in case of Apple which one of the largest Consumer electronics company in the world, the concept of leadership very person specific. Steve Jobs being considered as pioneer leader for the rise and growth of Apple Inc. For Apple,

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Great West Casualty V. Estate of G. Witherspoon Case Study - 1

Great West Casualty V. Estate of G. Witherspoon - Case Study Example Gertie Witherspoon was on her way to work on July 1 1998 at 4:30 AM when one of her tires on her automobile blew out and the car careened into a roadside ditch. With her car disabled, Witherspoon decided to walk along US route 71 near Adrian Missouri. Still shaken from the accident, Witherspoon attempted to cross the highway to reach for help. At that moment, two trailers, each moving at a speed of 70miles side by side spotted the small figure as she crossed the highway. The truck drivers tried stopping the vehicle but could not avoid hitting her and she died on the scene. In the weeks following the incidents, Mrs. Lang, the only daughter to Mrs. Witherspoon sought more information on the death of her mother. However, all she got was indifferent information from the highway patrol and the owner of the truck company. Frustrated, Lang rang the adjuster at Great West Casualty to ask for more information regarding the case. However, according to the adjuster, there was no fault on the pa rt of their client, Vernon County Grain and Supply. The adjuster pronounced the case closed prompting Lang to seek out help from an attorney. Believing that the family was preparing to sue the company, the claims representative at Great West Casualty filed a suit on behalf of the company against the estate of Mrs. Witherspoon. Five months later, Mrs. Lang received notice of a legal suit filed against her family for damages on the truck that hit her mother.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Intensive Family Based Services Essay Example for Free

Intensive Family Based Services Essay The study carried out by Raschick (1997) offered a keen input on how to create family preservation services and enhanced choice for families in opposition to out of home placements, stating that ‘the information proposed that IFBS (Intensive Family Based Services) services lessened average restrictiveness and extent of out-of-home placements. ’ Still, there are a number of researches that has very short-range, study-focused outcomes that has no long term assurance, picking out the direction that the three sides being argued in this paper is a part of the managing a cruel cycle which is neither stepladder arrangement nor cause and effect, only directed by conditions taking place on a case per case basis. While systematic Family Preservation Services (FPS) was associated vis-a-vis to the enrichment in substantiated reports relating to exploitation and out-of-home placements because of, as Littell imagines in Children and Youth Services Review, case-finding consequences given that FPS contact prioritized cases is considered as high-risk. , ‘the duration, extent, strength of family preservation services had small effect on succeeding youngster maltreatment, out-of-home placement, or the closing of cases’ (Littell, 1997). Extending the scope – is there more to out of home placements and its being used in juvenile delinquency reduction? Juvenile delinquency, as a problem, presents several courses of action which can be explored to combat juvenile delinquency, and two of the several options are sitting at both ends of the social order pole: family preservation efforts and out of home placements. It has a very tyrannical tone in it, as if the government is saying that ‘if you cannot stick together, we will pull you apart. ’ Some do not have a clear cut, black and white clarification on how to keep citizens from stepping within the gray part. Some claim ‘that family preservation agendas bring about substantial decline in the placement of children are based fundamentally on non-experimental studies’ (Littell, Schuerman, 1995), and this is just one of the many cynical or / and critical voices speaking out and representing the greater part of the social behavior discipline that needs a more clear cut answer on where each foot stands in the issue that has continued to threaten homes when it is not inquiring its reliability and firmness to stay together and work competently, contributing optimistically to the the community without the imposition of state- sanctioned procedures. Littell and Schuerman (1995) upped the stake with their disagreement, adding up the learning that ‘there is little solid attestation that programs planned at preventing out-of-home placements or reunifying families with the youth in foster care have the predictable outcomes. ’ Indeed, one of the pressing concerns that should be answered if there are hopes in being able to define what constitutes success and failure in out of home placement programs, juvenile delinquency programs and family preservation programs and how these three agendas are linked with each other (if not, then by designing allowing each to step on another’s foot on purpose) it should depend on the identification of the exact parameters that will dictate success or failure of any program, and the intended affects of each program should be clear to anyone and everyone involved so that the formulation of what was achieved should be in line with what the programs are designed to accomplish in the first place. â€Å"These conclusions do not inevitably mean that thorough family preservation services are weakening, but that researchers and practitioners must recognize that the purpose of services is to assist families attain basic goals and skills needed to keep a child at home, not to attempt to make major changes in family performance† (Wells, Whittington,1993). The trouble may also be intensified by the fact that actions taken by persons who are openly involved in the categorization of out of home placement, family preservation indicators and juvenile delinquency disregard the stipulated characteristics of each of the three areas of discussion and generating more gray and puzzling areas since there are no alternatives provided for or by researchers on how to enumerate or evaluate disparities from conventional behavioral patterns that makes the classification more complicated, success or failure of any of the three. This was the position of Wells and Whittington (1993) who stated that children who are not formally subjected to relationship or non-kinship out of home placements yet still travel from house to house disqualifies it as being measured as family preservation, noting how researchers, as a substitute, give importance on the constancy of a childs living arrangement; ‘if a child moves from home to home, but avoids placement, the researchers argue that this does not constitute family preservation’ (Wells, Whittington,1993) and adding that ‘out-of-home placement is an inadequate indicator of how well children and their families are functioning after discharge, because child placement may be a result of a large number of factors, like the child or familys mental health’ (Wells, Whittington,1993). Still, some study shows some positive signs from any one of the three interlinked areas. The study using the Emergency Family Care Program in Northern California to address the out of home placement problems of truly high-risk families yielded a result of ‘eighty-eight percent placement prevention rate found after one year (1985) of treatment’ (Berry, 1994). III. Quantitative and qualitative approaches – how each differ in impact in previous studies and in this paper’s objectives Different studies pertaining to out of home placements and juvenile delinquency cases take different routes, and while research designs, both quantitative and qualitative are unquestionably both generally accepted approach in which data is taken out from the focus groups and, it should also be put in proper perspective that both qualitative and quantitative study styles undoubtedly yield important when used in studying juvenile delinquency and out of home placement and other juvenile delinquency alternative solutions simply because either of the two can provide either a means by which crucial statistical information can be obtained or first hand individual sentiments are determined, sentiments, feelings or emotions that can represent a prevailing emotion residing in the realms of the issue this paper wishes to address. There are researches that provided quantitative output which can be key references in understanding the intricacies of the study focus. A very good example is the identification of Potocky and McDonald of the figures pertinent in determining which among the families with regards to number of children have a higher rate of sending the kids to foster care, pointing out that those with an average of 4. 8 children have higher chances of sending the children to foster care while those with an average 2. 6 children have a greater chance of staying together.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Free Narrative Essays - Advertising and Personal Values :: Personal Narrative Essays

Advertising and Personal Values      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   I just discovered that I don't know anything about today's society. This of course came as a shock.   I had thought that I was an informed citizen but I now know otherwise. this enlightenment came at great cost in time, and effort.   The time was spent in watching television for an hour. The effort was to not lose my sanity for unlike any other hour of TV, this time I was forced to actually watch the commercials.   The values that TV presents seem to be different than what I was taught as a child. Advertisers seem to present their own version of morality and values. Their idea of morality might not coincide with ours, but it does sell their products.      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Wait, I just learned that if I buy my wife an anniversary band she will know that I love her.   But of course the band is a few thousand dollars.   Oh wait, easy financing is a valuable.   Darn I missed the small print that was flashed for two seconds on the bottom of the screen.   Oh well it must not have been important.   Wont my wife love me even if I can't afford to buy her this bracelet?   I wonder if this is going to leave an impression on anyone with an anniversary coming up?   Could that be the intention?      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   If I want to enjoy work I had better listen to the lite fm 93.9., and for lunch I can run out to Arby's for 99 cent roast beef sandwiches, but only for a limited time.   And if those roast beef sandwiches get me sick I can go to Osco and get some medicine twenty-four hours a day.   All of these ads just came rapid fire.   Is this playing upon my need for instant gratification?   Are the advertisers trying to get me to hurry?      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   I have to go see a Jeep dealer so I can outrun a bull in heat, but I better be careful if I get it to dirty the pigs will fall in love with it.   Wow is that a nice Jeep, but what is the price anyway?   And is it practical to own a vehicle that can go anywhere on or off the road?

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Parenting Styles: What They Are and Why They Matter Essay -- Most Effe

A parent is not only the loving mother who holds you close to her for nine months and then many years, or the dad who plays baseball with you and intimidates his daughter’s dates. It is someone who is there for you from the start, guiding you to the right path of knowledge and teaching you how to stay on the right path independently. A parent does not need to have any biological associations to the child in order to be a parent to them. A parent must have certain characteristics to be rightfully called a parent. For many years psychologists have defined ways to correctly support a child to adulthood for parents all over the world. Some people conclude their practice of parenting their children after the child reaches the age of 18, and some have the duty as a lifelong job. As years pass so do generations and media changes very constantly and plays a factor in how children act and respond to certain stimuli. There was a study done in 2009 and people in Poughkeepsie had answere d a poll that revealed overall every age group finds it harder to raise a child in today’s day and age than it had been in previous generations, but the older the parent is, the longer the generation gap would be and that factors in the difficulty of understanding how media works with a child’s psychological set up. What a child watches on a television screen is what the child will imitate through behavior. However, parenting is not a book written by a doctor, parenting is having a family, and creating memories, also ensuring that your children live in a nourishing environment for their emotional, mental, and physical health. The accepted goal of a parent is to ensure that their child or children grow to be mature and able to both support themselves and a f... ...s Correlates. ERIC Digest. Extreme Parenting (28 Mar. 2011) Web. 20 Nov. 2014. Ishak, Z., Low, S. F., & Lau, P. L. (2012). Parenting Style as a Moderator for Students’ Academic Achievement. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 21(4), 487-493. Parsasirat, Z., Montazeri, M., Yusooff, F., Subhi, N., & Nen, S. (2013). The Most Effective Kinds of Parents on Children’s Academic Achievement. Asian Social Science, 9(13), p229. Talib, M. B. A., Abdullah, R., & Mansor, M. (2011). Relationship between Parenting Style and Children’s Behavior Problems. Asian Social Science, 7(12), p195. Timpano, K. R., Keough, M. E., Mahaffey, B., Schmidt, N. B., & Abramowitz, J. (2010). Parenting and obsessive compulsive symptoms: Implications of authoritarian parenting. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 24(3), 151-164.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Is inverting in CSR profitable or not

Is Investing in CARS profitable to business? At any juncture when an organization goes past simply legitimate compliances and emphatically engages in activities that seem to more extensive social good which is for the most part outside the diversions of the firm and is more customized towards the more extensive social responsibility, the firm Is said to have embraced the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CARS) (McMillan et al. 2006). The terms corporate social responsibility (CARS), corporate governance (CGI corporate sustainability (CSS), corporate citizenship and triple bottom line (TAB) are all being seed synonymously with each other and all these terms fall Into the broader concept of â€Å"ethical business† (Cast et al. , 2004). CARS Is taking the responsibility to empower people both socially and economically (Albuquerque, 2010).Holmes and Watts (1999) suggest that â€Å"CARS Is a duty of every corporate body to protect the Interest of society at large and alt hough every business's mall motive Is to earn profit, corporate should take the initiative for welfare of the society and should perform Its satellites accordingly†. CARS includes elements such as environmental protection, social equity ND economic growth and has a strong empathy with the founding principles of quality management (Leonard and Macadam, 2003).A fundamental belief among business and society scholars is that CARS ‘pays off for the organization as well as for the stakeholders and the society in general (Burke and Logon, 1996). The concept of CARS contrasts the classic economic argument that management has only one responsibility which is the wealth minimization of its owners. Classical economist Milton Friedman argued that the main aim of management is â€Å"to make as much money as possible while conforming to the basic rules of the society, both those embodied in the law and those embodied in ethical custom† (Friedman, 2007).Even economists such as F riedman, who had previously suggested that social matters were not the concerns of business people and that these problems had to be resolved by unrestricted workings of the free market system, had to change their views regarding corporate social responsibility (Carroll, 1991). A theory called the agency theory exists which suggests that CARS is a complete misuse of corporate resources that could have been spent on value-added internal projects or even have been returned to the shareholders (McMillan et al. 006). Alexander and Buckshot (1978) and Bowman and Hair (1975) have contrasting views suggesting that stakeholders might have a positive view when managers implement CARS and might consider that to be a standout management skill because a firm that Invests In the society Increases It's perceived social reputation which In turn helps build the company's Image whereas companies that do not contribute to the society might not reap equal benefits.Mousse's and Evans (1986) suggest tha t socially responsible activities have a significant Impact on firm's standing especially with such Important areas such as inkers, Investors, the government and engaging In social satellites Is a pivotal part of decision makings In banks and other Institutions these days. A direct Implication of this might be that the businesses can secure more capital from Investors Just because of their perceived social reputation. Investors are only drawn in generally if the profitability then obviously investors would not be interested.There are many organizations embracing the concept of CARS and there are many examples which show significant relationship between CARS and profitability. There have been other retinues too who have suggested a negative relation between social responsibility and profitability and have in fact argued that engaging in socially responsible activities are an added cost to the business that puts the firm at an economic loss compared to firms that are less socially res ponsible (Brandon and Merlin, 1985).However, this traditional concept of cost increment has been downplayed by many organizations that have adopted the concept and the results are quite promising too. One such organization is Timberland which has provided employees the opportunity o take significant amounts of paid time off to volunteer for social causes of their choosing (Peppier, 2003). Louis Button has been introducing CEO-friendly products and has been actively supporting environmental causes which could in turn entice customers to purchase the company's luxury items (Does and Schooner, 2009).Wall-Mart reduced transportation costs by $3. 5 million, saved 3,424 tons of corrugated materials, 1,358 barrels of oil, 5,190 trees and 727 shipping containers through their CARS initiative (Hampton et al. ). Ecology and Environment Inc. (2008) reported an 80% deduction in its annual carbon emissions from its headquarters noting that the efficiency gains resulted giving the company an esti mated net savings of approximately $232,000 from 1998 to 2008 (Sprinkle and Amines, 2010).Another prime example is Body Shop which generates so much profit because it advertises itself as being ethical as it bans animal testing and considers effect on endangered species when choosing ingredients for the company's products (Dennis et al. , 1998). Companies that engage in social performance by adapting CARS as a concept have often increased their ability to entice and to retain employees which in turn leads to owe turnover and significantly less training and recruitment costs (Turban and Greening, 1997). Merck has donated more than 2. Billion tablets of drug Emaciate (vermilion) to help eradicate river blindness in parts of Africa, Latin America, and the Middle easy and some observers noted that there were few financial benefits to Merck (Dick, 2009). Organizational culture is equally important at the workplace because it is directly related to ethical principles. A manager might prom ote unethical practices so as to achieve targets or higher profits causing fear among employees of the company's practices which might be detriment to their own good in the long run (Ross and Perry, 1999).Cornell and Shapiro (1987) induced a new theory whereby they claim that firms with a perceived social image might discover to have substantially lower cost than those of competitors which means they have a better financial performance. Even multinationals have engaged in socially responsible activities abroad. An example is Shell, an oil company based in London that came under intense criticism from various group over their drilling operations in Nigeria ND to compensate that Shell invested over $50 million in health, education, agriculture, Job creation, women's programmer, youth training and sponsorship (Eagleburger, 2003).The need for CARS emerged as it goes beyond Just the legal framework and various attempt have been made by governments of various countries to try and blend th e concept with existing legal paradigms. An example has nothing at all for the wide range of stakeholders that could be affected by the company's decisions such as consumers, employees or the local communities (Frankest, 2001). In the I-J, a number of commissions have been setup since the sass like the Hamper Commission (Committee on Corporate Governance, 1998) which rejected the idea quoting the fact that â€Å"accountability to many is accountability to none† (Frankest, 2001).Being socially responsible has many positive effects for the business. Socially responsible companies not only Just enjoy the benefits of brand image and reputation but also have less risk of negative risk events such as bribery, corruption, child labor scandals and sweatshops which could damage their reputation and cost millions of dollars in information and advertising campaigns Outsource, 2004). Marigold et al(2007) studied the empirical link between corporate social performance and corporate financ ial performance and found out that the overall correlation was positive.They also found that the association was strongest for specific dimension of charitable contributions, revealed misdeeds, and environmental performance. While selecting normal business rules and especially when it comes to selecting a profitable outcome, companies select CARS activities which yield the highest total payoffs in terms of collective benefits to the firm and its takeovers and which fall within the range indicated for strategic CARS of a firm as suggested by (Burke and Logon, 1996).Companies that adopt the CARS principles in the product industry run less risk of having to recall defective product lines and pay heavy fines for excessive pollution which means consumers can trust the companies that are seen to be investing heavily in CARS activities (Outsource, 2004). While helping reduce staff turnover, if CARS activity can hold one highly trained specialist who earns $100,000 this can translate into a $400,000 benefit for the company as the cost of employee turnover can range from 50% to 400% base salary (Sprinkle and Amines, 2010).According to Martin(2002), â€Å"Corporations often willingly engage in socially responsible behavior precisely because it enhances shareholder value†. Academic researchers face difficulty in measuring the relation between social and financial performance. Business students and business faculty members and even fortune rankings have been found to have used subjective indicators (Outsource, 2004).Other researchers have however used survey instruments, behavioral and recapture measures, rating seems, combination of surveys: financial statements, articles on companies in press, academic Journals and government reports to asses profitability against various dimensions (Outsource, 2004). The problem with academicians and researchers is that it is hard to measure profitability Just on one dimension of the broad dimensions that corporate social respon sibility has to offer.Another problem underlying the concept of corporate social responsibility is that it can only come into reality if managers adopting it become moral instead of amoral or amoral (Carroll, 1991). The philanthropic functions and ethical functions (Carroll, 1991) have taken a significant place in recent years making it even difficult for any measurement as such.Other variables can be measured through statistical tools and dependent and independent variables analysis can also be done. Burke and Longed (1996) suggest that there are five strategic dimensions which help firm assess the value created for the firm by CARS programmer: centrality, specificity, their strategic proposition can expect really good results compared to the ones that just eliminate CARS activities.Caravan and McGuire(2010) suggest that ‘increasingly, human resource development (HARD) is viewed as having a role in helping organizations achieve societal, environmental and economic goals'. CAR S as previously mentioned by the author is linked to other departments too. Companies engaging in CARS can actually produce efficient results such as helping to raise awareness among employees, developing potential attitudes towards sustainability, environmental awareness and corporate citizenship.CARS is interrelated with other components of management science. For example, Press et al (2009) suggest that HARD investment as been found to be associated with a positive impact on the triple bottom line of business, social and economic performance and various other literatures aforementioned have suggested how CARS has contributed to reducing staff turnovers hence contributing to a better organizational performance in all sects of the firm itself.There is an argument that exists between business students on how CARS has become a part of business and management courses worldwide and the fundamental aim of business is to make profit; the students deduce the fact that if CARS was not prof itable why would it even be considered as a feature in the study of equines and management as suggested by (Mullions, 2007). There are a few organizations that have adopted CARS and used it as a marketing tool.Tell bank was a bank which was successful because it marketed itself as an ethical bank and other Islamic banks which have tailored their services to meet the religious and cultural needs of the local people are found to have done relatively well (Wilson, 2005). Many organizations have adapted to the concept of implementing CARS activities and even gone on to using it for strategic purposes and almost all of the time to increase their revenues (Wilson, 2005).Classic literatures in business and society proclaimed that while CARS might have short term costs, it actually pays off in the long run as suggested by (Davis K, 1997 and Steiner G. C (1980). Burke and Logon (1996) suggest that companies should carry out the following analysis while implementing CARS so as to increase the ir profits: Firms need to identify the stakeholders which are vital for achieving the firm's mission, aims or strategic objectives. Firms need to find out policies that are relevant to CARS, programmer and related activities which tailors to the wide range of stakeholders. Firms need to access the opportunities that offered by implementing CARS project so as to attain their strategic objectives or so as to solve problems and threats facing the problem (certainty). Firms need to access the cost benefit analysis of CARS projects which can be captured or internalized by a firm opposed to other firms in the same industry especially the competitors (Specificity). Firms need to anticipate future changes in the organizations environment and changes in the needs of key stakeholders which could be addressed through proactive CARS policies and activities (Proactively). Firms need to determine the starting point of mandated requirements in order to find out the opportunities for voluntary acti vities (voluntarism). Firms need to identify opportunities so as to create positive visibility with relevant internal or external stakeholders from CARS activities (Visibility). Finally, firms need to measure and associate the value or future value that is expected from various CARS projects various countries bringing out new legislations and have recognized environment, employees and consumers to be significant and legitimate stakeholders of business. Carroll (1991) suggest that â€Å"corporate executives have had to wrestle with how they balance their commitments to the corporation's owners with their obligations to an ever-broadening group of stakeholders who claim both legal and ethical rights†.Various literatures have suggested both positive and negative correlation between profitability and corporate social responsibility. However, there is no compelling evidence from literature to suggest that there is negative correlation between the two. Organizations that have adapt ed the concept of CARS and have made it part of heir strategy have found to have done well (see examples above) (Albuquerque, 2010). It might be the prime reason why various organization in different parts of the world have used the concept of CARS in their strategic decision making phase.There might be some organizations which have embraced the concept of social responsibility as a voluntary activity but research literatures show that organizations that have used and tailored programmer to social good have in fact benefited in terms of financial performance too. Companies and board of directors now discuss he term CARS in their annual general meetings and are seen to be keen on engaging in these activities and even go as far as advertising what they did in their brochures which are generally released in various Scams.This paper recommends the use of CARS by businesses and there are academic and research evidences to suggest that engaging in these activities will help increase profi t levels for different organizations but Outsource(2004) views suggests that extensive studies are needed to explore the casual mechanism linking CARS to profitability and to determine whether or not those relationships hold consistently over time.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Brand Reinforcement

STRATEGIC BRAND MANAGEMENT ASSESSMENT Birmingham University Business School Msc Marketing 1205306 TA-CHENG LIU Words: 2992 Question: Brands need to be managed over time. This involves ‘Toscani’sToscani’s’. With reference to academic theory outline how brands have reinforced and revitalized themselves. You should illustrate your points with examples This paper aims to discuss that organizations how to use strategic actions to enhance brand and revitalize brand equity in strong competition. In terms of innovative marketing, amounts of organizations want to be managed as brands in order to generate benefits and profits for organizations. Kapferer, 2008) Indeed, brands are built on past marketing efforts obtained from consumers. As Kapferer (2008) documented, brands could be also seen as assets which produce benefits within long period. However, brands possibly encounter aging and decay in their lifecycle. (Keller, 1999) Furthermore, some brands may be inabilit y to compete in the strongly competitive market, because consumers may change their motivation on this category. In addition, regulations and advanced technology possibly influence brands losing their presence in the target market. Thomas & Kohli, 2009) Therefore, this paper will discuss two brands of cigarette, Mild Seven and Marlboro. They have suffered the difficulties at different moments, hence, both company had experience on brand reinforcement and brand revitalization. According to Thomas & Kohli (2009), brand enhancement aims to maintain the top-of-mind recall with consumers. Marketers actually could redesign marketing mix in order to fortify position. More importantly, brand equity will consist with brand extension. However, brand revitalization attempt to revive aging or decaying brands.When the brands are going to decay, the brand equity will decrease at the same time. Therefore, Wansink (2000) provided 7 steps include reposition and product innovation to rejuvenate brand s. Indeed, Ind (2007) argued that storytelling is another important technique which integrates past experience and future direction of brands. Companies sometimes merely think about reposition, but describing a brand story could benefit companies building stronger relationship with consumers. Overall, companies should prepare long term strategy to sustain the brand life.Moreover, I am convinced that brands need to transfer their communication channel besides traditional mass media. It benefits them extend brand image in consumers mind. According to Kaperer (2012), Brands are assets that could generate benefits to company within long time. Therefore, companies need to ceaselessly manage their brand equity over time in order to avoid lose presence in the industry. Specifically, the standard of brands life could be defined as birth, growth, maturity, decline, and death. During the brand life cycle, companies inevitably encounter dynamics of market.Consequently, their brand equity may g radually suffer the difficulties and be diminished in the future. (Lehu, 2006) Therefore, marketers need consider brand reinforcement and brand revitalization to sustain the brand. Indeed, it is the important responsibility that determine the when the brand should assess reinforcing or revitalizing for brand managers. As Keller documented (1999), brand reinforcement concentrates on avoiding brand aging and decaying. It will benefit companies fortify the brand image and brand awareness by innovating product and service in competitive market.On the other hand, brand revitalization mainly recapturing the brand equity which has been decaying and aging over time. As for maintaining the brand equity in a long period, organizations need to conduct strategy for brand enhancement. The purpose of reinforcing brand is maintaining top-of-mind recall in the competitive industry. (Thomas & Kohli, 2009) Literaturely, there are two major considerations of brand reinforcement for marketers: staying at young stage and brand consistency. In order to stay at youthful stage, marketers should create younger brand image to instead chronological age of brand.Specifically, companies could regularly advance their products or services in order to adapt in dynamic environment. (Lehu, 2006) Therefore, Keller (2012) suggested that companies could enhance the product-related performance to raise the value of brands. Moreover, organizations could use either category extension or line extension to strengthen brand awareness. On the other hand, reinforcing non-product-related performance of brands is expected to pursuit emotion and belief to consumers. Furthermore, I consider that excessive updating or extending may result in negative perception of consumers.Actually, they possibly confused on overmuch products from the specific brand. Consequently, it will decrease the favorability of the brand. In addition, maintaining brand consistency is a crucial aspect of reinforcing brand. Because keepi ng loyal consumers is the most important task of the brand. Hence, marketers should protect their elements of brand equity advance. Nevertheless, brand managers could attempt to reformulate elements of brand equity under the consistency concept. I am convinced that it is important to integrate consistency and youthfulness at the same time for brands.Therefore, companies would redesign their marketing mix in order to meet the both objectives of brand enhancement. As for distribution, companies can establish online shop to contact with youngsters in the digital generation. Moreover, they should enhance their service in order to easily contact with consumers. (Lehu, 2006) In terms of communication channel, he asserts that exhibitions are a vital medium which could demonstrate and promote products with consumers. It benefits companies fortify their brand image in consumers’ mind. In addition, event and sponsorship can reach more potential consumers due to widely exposing.Subseque ntly, companies could innovate their merchandising to strengthen the brand image. (Olaito, 2010) More importantly, brand research is most important technique before aforementioned actions. As LePla, Davis & Parker documented (2003), brand research can benefit companies for understanding the need of new generation. Furthermore, brand managers need to monitor changes in consumer perceptions. (Thomas & Kohli, 2009) Hence, brand managers can conduct suitable strategies to adapt the trend. In order to apply the theory above in the real world, Mild Seven is an adequate case to interpret brand reinforcement.It is the third most smoked tobacco in the industry. They dominated the domestic market and Asia market for long time because they continually maintaining brand equity. (http://www. jt. com) Moreover, their sales of global market gradually grew at the current moment. (http://global. tobaccofreekids. org) Indeed, the company concentrates on younger smokers due to the increasing need of y ounger smokers. This targeting strategy benefited Mild Seven remain the younger brand image in the industry. Initially, Mild Seven attempt to develop variable products from 10mg of tar to 1 mg of tar of cigarettes.New products were generated with milder taste and lower level of tar to meet consumers’ requirement. (http://www. tobaccoasia. com) It is expected maximize brand equity by line extension. Furthermore, Mild Seven constantly advances new filter technologies to protect its advantages. As for packaging, Mild Seven reformulate some of brand image. The company created a symbolic image to support the brand name. Furthermore they use blue and white motif of appearance for whole products in order to youthfulness. (http://www. thedesignassoc. om) Although Mild Seven changed the part of image, the brand still maintained the consistency in consumers’ mind. Moreover, Mild Seven used the recycled materials on packaging for improving negative image when selling cigarettes. (http://www. thedesignassoc. com) Subsequently, Mild Seven sponsored a team of Formula One in order to expand brand exposure worldwide. It made a significant contribution to the brand awareness. (http://www. auto123. com) Moreover, the symbol of Mild Seven has been impressive in audiences’ mind in the global market. Ultimately, Mild Seven decided to manufacture cigarettes in Switzerland for quality license.Consequently, consumers in Europe have more confidence on its products. This efficiently enhances brand equity for Mild Seven. (http://www. ciggiesworld. com) Conversely, Marlboro is another significant example. It has ever become a decaying brand in 1950s, but they now are the best-selling cigarette brand in the world. (http://www. bukisa. com/) After revitalization, the company attempt to sustain the brand equity in a long period. Marlboro encountered several difficulties few decades ago such as: advertising limit (http://www. marketingweek. co. uk) and healthy concern. M organ, 2007) Therefore, the company decided to continually fortifying their branding equity to against dynamics. Because governments prohibit advertisement of cigarette on majority of mass media in majority of countries, Marlboro cannot promote their characters and products efficiently even though Marlboro Man has already been impressive in consumers’ mind. (http://www. marketingweek. co. uk) Consequently, the company moved into sponsorship which benefited the brand being exposed on mass media. (Hemdev, 2005) Refer to Lehu (2006) mentioned, Marlboro transferred their distribution to night clubs which are admitted promotion for adult. Hemdev, 2005) It benefited the company reach target consumers directly. Simultaneously, Marlboro changed the product name with different color before the FDA limited misleading brand name. (Hemdev, 2005) It may decrease the risk of brand equity because changing brand name suddenly results in making consumers confused. But Marlboro still attempted to remain the brand consistency over time. To maximize brand equity, Marlboro developed an electronically heated cigarette for smokers who concern health issues. Moreover, it will benefit the company expanding brand association into the potential market and improving healthy concern.In addition, Marlboro authorized the brand name for clothing manufacture. (http://www. marlborooriginals. co. za) It benefits them maximizing brand awareness when implementing category extension. The cases indicate that both brands actively implement brand reinforcement in order to fortify their competition in the cigarette industry. However, both companies use similar strategies for strengthening brand equity. It possibly decreases degree of strength and uniqueness of brand associations. Hence, I concur that brands are expected to differentiate promotion because unique brand enhancement could attract consumers’ attention.As for youthfulness, brands should concentrate on Internet medium and socia l media in the digital generation because younger generations spend a lot of time on it. Consequently, brands could reach more potential consumers than before. In addition, there are less limits of advertisement of cigarette than normal mass media. Companies have more opportunities to reinforce their brand equity. On the other hand, some brands have already lost their value from consumers. Therefore, marketers need to rejuvenate the decaying brands in order to revive in the market. Thomas & Kohli, 2012) In addition, some organizations are interested in acquiring aging brands or declining brands and they attempt to reinvent the brands. It may benefit them expanding to different market. (Kaperer, 2012) In terms of revitalization process, Berry (1988) suggested that 7 steps of revitalizing strategy for companies. Initially, it needs to reposition innovative products or services with high quality. This probably gets consumers’ attention again. Secondly, the quality should be conn ected with their heritage and reputation.Thirdly, companies need to improve customer relationship in order to benefit the brands. Moreover, marketers should accelerate visible brand value to consumers. Subsequently, promoting the unique selling point is crucial to differentiate previous products and competitors. Specifically, brand manager should pursue additional value and good quality at competitive price to consumers. Moreover, companies could also provide superior functional benefits which may refresh the brand image. (Thomas & Kohli, 2009) In addition, organizations should integrate rejuvenation with marketing mix.More importantly, brands need to hold an event or campaign in order to announce their revitalization. Besides 7 steps, Keller (2012) mentioned that brand manager could identify additional or innovative usage with consumers on brand revitalization; simultaneously, they sometimes identify different direction to utilize a brand. Therefore, reposition becomes a common tec hnique of revitalization, but brand managers have to carefully define a new target market when they decided to reposition the brands. (Thomas & Kohli, 2009) However, there are some risks when companies assess the reposition strategy.Firstly, it is difficult to change brand image for consumers due the stereotype. Secondly, consumers may confuse between the previous image and new brand image. Finally, it possibly loses loyal consumers. (Keller, 2012) In order to rejuvenate brand image, most organizations attempt to modify the visual identity of brand. Indeed, changing the brand name is a frequent revitalization strategy by marketers. It could improve negative image of original brand name with consumers. However, renaming the brand probably decrease the degree of loyalty, brand recall and brand association. Keller, 2012) In addition, Mininni (n. d. ) suggest that revitalization needs to transfer the logo, trademark and trade dress could refresh brand image. But it may require repackagi ng with innovative products to younger generation at the same time. Although modifying either brand name or logo is expected to promote innovative meaning of brand to consumers, companies possibly invent huge amounts of expenditure on interpreting a new identity from an old one. Indeed changing the colors and the fonts is an easier and cheaper action for modifying visual identity and moving toward the fresh image.According to Ind (2007), storytelling is another tool for brand revitalization. Consumers and companies could be engaged in the story which describes brand history. Because brands possibly become aging within long time, consumers gradually have weak association with aging brands. Hence, Storytelling is a crucial medium to awake consumers’ memory of brands. In fact, I am convinced that storytelling could efficiently benefit companies on consumer retention while companies change the elements of brand equity. Additionally, celebrity endorsement is a useful technique for brand revitalization.Because celebrities can provide additional value from celebrities’ image, they can improve brand image and attract consumers’ attention for aging brands. Moreover, celebrity endorsement could extend communication channel of brand such as TV, magazine, activities and film. Consequently, companies attempt to sign a contract with younger and fashionable in order to returning youthfulness. Furthermore, celebrity could easily build association when companies assess repositioning. However, celebrity endorsement sometime has negative impact on brand image when celebrities have negative behaviors or news.More importantly, organizations should carefully choose suitable celebrities who own the public image as same as brand. (Lehu, 2006) The Marlboro Cigarettes is a famous example to understand the revitalization steps in reality. In the early period, Marlboro Cigarettes failed on female market in the United Stated in 1902. They initially introduced the camp aign â€Å"Mild as May† in order to reach lady’s image. Furthermore, they tried to design red tips with cigarettes in order to meet female’s requirement, but it did not benefit the sales of Marlboro. (http://www. bukisa. om/) In addition, the need of cigarette annually increased in the United Stated during the World of War II, whereas, Marlboro gradually was taken off the market due to weak brand awareness. Consequently, Marlboro tried to launch the filtered cigarettes for the female markets. The new products also aimed to against a study linking smoking to lung cancer. (http://voices. yahoo. com) However, the strategy could not benefit the company getting strong presence in the market. It is evidenced that Marlboro failed on brand enhancement even though they worked hard for consumers’ perception. http://www. bukisa. com/) Therefore, Marlboro decided to completely revitalize the brand position. The company changed the target consumer from females to male s with a campaign called â€Å"tattooed man†. The character is expected significantly establishing strong image in consumers’ mind, because the stereotype of man was a worker, a captain, a marine and an adventure in the United Stated in 1900s. Specifically, Marlboro created a cowboy as the Marlboro man in advertisement. (http://adage. com) The companies also use celebrity endorsement as Marlboro Man to strengthen their personality.Since then, the cowboy has become an impressive image for both smokers and non-smokers when they thought about Marlboro. As for product innovation, Marlboro developed a longer and white color of appearance of cigarettes. Compared to competitors, it was a unique feature which appealed high quality of cigarettes to consumers. http://www. bukisa. com/ Simultaneously, Marlboro redesigned the packaging with red, white and black-lettered in order to convey the independent spirit. (Hemdev, 2005) After revitalization, Marlboro turned round in the cig arette market in the USA.Furthermore, the brand became the premium brand and market leader in the world. As a result, the theory of Berry (1988) is convinced to success on brand revitalization. Comparing to Marlboro, Mild Seven did the brand well for long time, but the company plans to revitalize brand due to moving to global market. In order to obtain more market share in the regions besides Asia, Mild Seven decided to create a new brand name, Mevius which instead of Mild Seven. (http://www. jt. com/) In fact, the new name would benefit the company adapting in FDA’s policy of brand name.Although Mevius is a new name, it still remained the meaning of brand. Furthermore, the new name is expected to evaluate to premium position for western consumers. In addition, the packaging strategy keeps the icon and color of origin with new exterior design. (White, 2012) Indeed, Mild Seven integrated brand equity of past and future; this may decrease risk of brand association with consumer s. Both brands attempt to reposition their brand equity for revitalization, but they did not efficiently connect to previous elements.Mild Seven and Marlboro have rich heritage in the industry, they could actually utilize their history conveying a story to consumers. As Ind documented (2007), storytelling can remind the consumers’ perception on brands. Moreover, it benefits brands retaining older consumers. In my opinion, the best technique of brand revitalization will retain the loyal consumers and refresh brand equity at the same time. In conclusion, brand reinforcement and brand revitalization are crucial consideration for brand managers. Both of them have similar strategy in the market, but they are implemented at different moment.Therefore, organizations tend to maintain brand consistency and protect source of brand equity in order to survive in the competitive environment. Although most of scholars assert that brand should consistently evaluate their products and consum ers’ perception, I personally consider that organizations need to innovate their communication channels in the modern society. Because of advanced media, people would obtain information widely; therefore, Strengthen communication benefit brand fortifying brand equity and easily contacting with more potential consumers.On the other hand, companies concentrate on refreshing brand image by brand revitalization; hence, they always reposition the brand to improve negative brand equity. But it is expensive to reposition brands, some brand managers would redesign logo and packaging to rejuvenate brands. It possibly diminish the degree of risk for companies. In fact, I assert that it may be dangerous to rename the brand, which may lose their heritage with consumers. Although Mild Seven was successful on the decision, most consumers can not associate it between the Mevius and Mild Seven.In my opinion, revitalized brand should convey messages in order to make younger generations realiz ing brand heritage and value. It could build stronger relationship with consumers. In addition, Remaining brand history benefit companies retaining loyal consumers. Overall, brand managers should conduct long term strategy before building brands because sustaining brand equity is a profitable contribution to companies. References: A Busy Year for Japan Tobacco (2012) Available from: http://www. tobaccoasia. com/previous-issues/95-articles-q2-12/519-a-busy-year-for-japan-tobacco. tml [Accessed on 3 March 2013]. Berry, N. C. (1988) ‘Revitalizing brands’. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 5 (3): 15-21. Burnet, L. (1999) The Marlboro Man. 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