Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Use of Films for ESOL Learners CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This chapter presents background of the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the research, and definition of key terms. Background of The Study Writing is a complicated skill, writing is a skill that the language teacher must teach to their students. And also it is very important because writing van give the student chance to show or express their personalities, and to mastery and to develop the English ability (Scot and Ytreberg,1992). In addition, because of writing, the learners learn to communicate with other people in order they will understand each other, or to read the message and they need to write it. (Raimes, 1983). That its why writing will give benefit for students if they mastered this writing. Writing is not skill where the students get easily and naturaly. It means, English as Foreign Language learners are not taught how to write a good narrative story in English language. However, to teach writing not only about grammar, the mechanics of the alphabet or the spelling, but also the learners need to see the ideas or concepts in English language. Lack of vocabulary is also the problem when the teacher ask students to write. The students look confused and asking their friend about what is the English language for some words. High school students are asked to write simple and short sentences, messages, short announcements, and also to write narrative, and other type of paragraphs (Depdiknas, 2006). In the statement above, the teaching of writing at high school is a simple one. However, writing is productive skills besides speaking, but still look complicated skill for SMA students to master. It is a complex activity that need a variety of skills. Due to that condition, the researcher tries to find out a kind of technique that can help students write sentences or a simple paragraph and encourage them in the writing activity. The researcher assumes that one of the good ways of teaching writing is by using media. Instructional media is important in teaching and learning processes in order the students can enhance and promote learning and support the teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s instruction. The use of media needs to be planned carefully. There are so many kinds of media that can be used in the teaching writing process. One of them is short movie. Short movie can be the basis of the most difficult side: motivate students to write. Short movie as the media are very useful for teaching English writing, especially to attract and giving the anxiety to the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ attention and to deliver the information. So, in teaching writing, the teacher can use short movie to motivate the students to write, to help, to stimulate and to guide students to write a narrative paragraph. In this research, the researcher tries to implement the using of movie strategy into the teaching of narrative paragraph. A narrative paragraph is a paragraph that retells events happening in the past. It focuses on individual participants, uses correct grammar: past tense, focuses on a sequence of events, and it uses action clauses. To make a good narrative paragraph, it would be better if the teachers use short movie to make the learning process clear and make students understand, and the students will arrange the sentences in a good chronological order. The researcher believes that picture series is applicable for the students in SMAN I MANYAR GRESIK because it may guide, help, motivate and encourage the students to express and show their ideas, opinions, and thoughts onto paper. 1.2 Statement of The Problem The research problem in this research is in a question form: Ã¢â¬Å"How can 11th grade of SMAN I MANYAR studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ ability in writing narrative paragraphs be improved by using short movie?Ã¢â¬ 1.3 Purpose of The Study According to the problem above this research is to describe how the 11th grade students ability in writing narrative paragraph at SMAN 1 MANYAR can be improved by using short movie. 1.4 Significance of The Study The findings of this research can be useful for the teacher and other researchers. For the teachers, the finding of this study can give the alternative way or technique in teaching writing narrative texts. 1.5 Scope and Limitation of The Study The research is focused on the teaching and learning process by involving the 11th grade students of SMAN I MANYAR GRESIK in short movie to improve their writing ability in narrative texts. The improvement is focused on four components: organization, vocabulary, grammar, and mechanic. Those components are analyzed using analytic scoring rubric for writing. 1.6 Definition of Key Terms In order to avoid misunderstanding, the researcher defines several important terms in this proposal: Short movie is a movie that has a short duration about 15-20 minutes length. Narrative is a piece of text which tells a story and has generic structure begins from orientation, complications, and resolution. Writing ability is a way that needs skill of communicating a message to a reader to express idea, thoughts and feelings. Improve is make something to be better. From low to high. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE This chapter aims to provide a review of the literature related to the teaching of English in Indonesia, the problem of writing, the previous research and the media. 2.1 The Teaching of English in Indonesia English is the international language which is used in communication, or an activity every time. Mastering English is getting important. In Indonesia, English is a compulsory subject. But it seems that the teaching of English as a Foreign Language is not to lead the students to be able to communicate, but only to prepare the students to pass the national examination (Kam Wong, 2004:181). But nowadays, many teachers and learners realize if learning English is not only the skill that we need to pass the exams, but also for communication. Saukah (2000) states that the purpose of teaching English as a foreign language in Indonesia is that the learners will master to use English for communication; in written or oral language. The ability to communicate is the way how we are able to understand and show to express something. Writing is one of four language skills which has important role in teaching English as a Foreign Language. Brown (2001), writing is simple as putting the ideas or concepts into paper. Compared to speaking, writing is more difficult because writing has the typical characteristics of language that are more complex than those of spoken language such as the degree of formality. Naturally, the process of writing needs the different set of competencies and skills which not every writer has. As beginners, Senior High School students, of course, cannot be expected to master and apply all those writing skills. The students still have a lot of problems in expressing their ideas in writing form. The curriculum expects students to be able to write simple message and simple paragraph at Junior High School. This expectation has not been achieved yet because the students still find it difficult to express and show their ideas in the written language especially in English. This statement based on fact that most of the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ paper cannot be understood well because there are so many errors. 2.2 Previous Research Research on using short movie strategy has been conducted by some researchers. Sumarsih (2006) did a study using short movie to teach English at the XI IPA-1 students of SMA Negeri 8 Medan. The study showed that the first score of the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ test was 42,5 for the total improvement from the first competency test to the third competency test was 68,75%. The conclusion is that the student achievement was improved by using the media such as short movie. So the points that we can conclude from using short movie strategy in teaching writing are (1) stimulates the students to be active in English classes during the activity, (2) activates the four language skills (speaking, listening, readning and writing at the same time), (3) produces a fun English class as the best way to learn English, (4) increase studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ achievement. Media for Teaching Writing Listiyaningsih (2002), to facilitate the teaching and learning process, several kinds of media can be used as useful means of teaching in interesting ways. In fact, teaching and learning activities are communication processes. So, using media in teaching writing are good to encourage and stimulate the students to be actively involved during the teaching and learning processes. The media are: Short Movie Sound speaker Proyektor CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter contains the description of the research methodology. It includes research design, population and sample, subject and setting, data collection, and data analysis. 3.1 Research Design In this study, the researcher uses Classroom Action Research because the researcher wants to improve the students writing skill. The researcher uses short movie as instructional media to improve the students writing skill. It will be brought by the researcher as a new teaching technique in the class. Particularly, the aim of this study is to find a new strategy or technique in learning English writing which can help the teacher to solve classroom problems. The researcher implemented the CAR by Kemmis and Mac Taggart (1998). There are four phase or steps in this action research: (1) planning an action, (2) implementing an action, (3) observing and (4) reflecting. 3.2 Population and Sample The population of the study consisted of 360 students ; 124 male students and 236 female students in SMAN 1 MANYAR Gresik 11th grade . The sample of this study consisted of 36 students of class XI IPS 2: 16 male students and 20 female students, which chosen by cluster sampling at SMAN 1 MANYAR Gresik 11th grade . 3.2.1 Subject and Setting This research was conducted at SMAN 1 MANYAR Gresik 11th grade.. This school had thirty (30) classes and each level had ten (10) classes. The subjects of this study were class XI IPS 2, at the academic year 2013/2014. The class consists of thirty six (36) students. The reason why the researcher chose this class because this class had the most problems in writing. 3.3 Data Collection 3.3.1 Intrument The instrument of this research; First, document collection was conducted by collecting studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ papers at the end of the steps to be evaluated. The data that researcher test are two data in cycle 1 and cycle 2. Both of the cycle are test which will have different movie that will be showed to the students. And the papers the students submitted not just the result of narrative paragraph, but also all their drafting in order to evaluate their progress when they write before. Second, field notes were used as instruments to know what was happened such as the condition and the setting of the class, the atmosphere of the classroom and the other unexpected things that happened. Third, interviews were conducted in two types; at the beginning of the study in order to gather data about the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ problems in writing and at the end of to find out the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ understanding the implementation of the narrative paragraph using short movie strategy. Finally, questionnaires was applied at the end of the cycle to know about the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ responses and attitude in the implementation of the approach. 3.3.2 The Procedure of Collecting Data The researcher did the steps proposed by Kemmis and Mc Taggart (1998) as illustrated below; The researcher explains the research procedures start from preliminary study and research implementation; including planning, implementation, observation, and reflection which is appropriate with the illustration above. Planning: The teacher plans about the lesson plan, materials, media, the instruments. Implementation: In this part, the teaching and learning processes are carried out by the researcher, helped by a collaborator or teacher to observe the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ progress during the process of learning. Observation : the process of recording and gathering all of the data during the teaching and learning processes. Reflection: the researcher and the collaborative teacher are discussed the result of the implementation if it is success or not. 3.4 Data Analysis In evaluating the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ writing scores and results, the researcher uses analytic scoring rubric whose components of writing are scored partly and separately based on the composition such as; content, language use, and mechanic. The researcher wants the students will has minimum target score at least 60. Table 1. Scoring Rubric of Evaluating the StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢Writing Products Components of Writing Level Scale and Descriptor Content: Vocabulary Chronological order 4 The content is relevant to the topic and easy to understand. 3 The content is almost complete, relevant to the topic. 2 The content is relevant to the topic but is not quite easy to understand. 1 The content is not quite relevant to the topic. Language use: Use Past Tense 4 No grammatical inaccuracies 3 Some grammatical inaccuracies 2 Several grammatical inaccuracy 1 Frequent grammatical inaccuracies Mechanics: Spelling Punctuation Capitalization 4 It uses correct spelling, good punctuation, and capitalization 3 It has occasional errors of spelling, mistaken punctuation, and capitalization 2 It has frequent errors of spelling, punctuation, and capitalization 1 It has no mastery of convention Ã¢â¬â dominated by errors of spelling, punctuation, and capitalization Adapted from J.B. Heaton (1990:111) with some modification. From the scoring rubric of writing narrative in table 1, the maximum score is 12 (3 x 4) and the minimum is 3 (3 x 1). So, to identify the final score of the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ achievement in writing narrative is based on the following scores category in the table. And the scoring is: Data Display There are four kinds of data that collected in this research and most of them were in the form of qualitative data. They were collected from document collection, field notes, interviews, and questionnaires. 1
Monday, January 20, 2020
The Movement for Women's Rights Inside "The Yellow Wallpaper" by Charlotte Perkins Gilman Women have been mistreated, enchained and dominated by men for most part of the human history. Until the second half of the twentieth century, there was great inequality between the social and economic conditions of men and women (Pearson Education). The battle for women's emancipation, however, had started in 1848 by the first women's rights convention, which was led by some remarkable and brave women (Pearson Education). One of the most notable feminists of that period was the writer Charlotte Perkins Gilman. She was also one of the most influential feminists who felt strongly about and spoke frequently on the nineteenth-century lives for women. Her short story, "The Yellow Wallpaper" characterizes the condition of women of the nineteenth century through the main characterÃ¢â¬â¢s life and actions in the text. It is considered to be one of the most influential pieces because of its realism and prime examples of treatment of women in that time. This essay analyzes issues the protag onist goes through while she is trying to break the element of barter from her marriage and love with her husband. This relationship status was very common between nineteenth-century women and their husbands. In Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ Gilman presents the behavior of society of the time. The protagonist is suppressed by her husband, John, and her brother, though they both mean well. The way she is treated by her husband and her brother is not outwardly Ã¢â¬Å"meanÃ¢â¬ because they never deal with her in anger, but the way that they suppress her by not letting her express her feelings or do what she wants, is still abuse. Even though, the way that they are treating her is wrong, it does not seem wrong because they both act gentle and kind towards her and make her think that they really do care about her. Throughout the story, the protagonist states her intentions to herself, but then does not act upon them because of her husband. This is further shown when she speaks of her husband and her brother, who "is also of higher standing," (Gilman 317) showing the high ranking of men in society. They keep her from doing the things she wants because they believe it is best for her to rest. She disagrees. "Personally, I believe that congenial work, with excitement and change, would do me good" (Gilman 317). On p... ...ble to see that it actually incorporates themes of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights. Gilman mainly used the setting to support her themes. This short story was written in 1892, at that time, there was only one women's suffrage law. Now, because of many determinant feminists, speakers, teachers, and writers, the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights movement has grown increasing large and is still in progress today. This quite recent movement took over more then a century to grant women the rights they deserve to allow them to be seen as equals to men. This story was a creative and moving way to really show how life may have been as a woman in the nineteenth century. Works Cited Eichelberger, Clayton. American Literary Realism 1870-1910. Vol. 8, issue 1. University of Texas, 1975. Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. "The Yellow Wallpaper" (p.316-327). Literature: Reading and Writing With Critical Strategies. Ed. Steven Lynn. University of South Carolina, 2004 Pearson Education. Infoplease. Almanacs: Ã¢â¬Å"Key Events in WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Rights MovementÃ¢â¬ 2005 31 March 2005 Wohlpart, Jim. American Literature Research and Analysis Web Site. Ã¢â¬Å"Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow Wallpaper.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ 1997. Florida Gulf Coast University
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Interpretation by Arkadiy Kurakin The story of Herbert Ernest Bates Ã¢â¬Å"The Beauty of the DeadÃ¢â¬ . The story is a unit of literary fiction. The author uses different expressive means and stylistic devices to show the reader the idea of the story, such as epithets, metaphor, similar, oxymoron, irony, hyperbola, understatement, etc. The protagonist of this story is Mr. Grimshaw. This is a complex character, reticent, gloomy. His surname is rather significant.The adjective Ã¢â¬Å"grimÃ¢â¬ means harsh, merciless, severe; ghastly, joyless, sinister (has a grim truth in it); unpleasant, unattractive. Ã¢â¬â expresses here the impression to be made by him on a reader. We can see his mercilessness from the following phrase: he turned with satisfaction to look at his wife, who lay dying on the bed. From his interaction with the minor character it occurs that though his relative consider him to be another, he is so a man that his name gives our an impression.The most important acti on of the protagonist is his inner thoughts, his choice in using sudden circumstances, his impulse to go through all the events happened. The minor characters is his wife. We do not know and the author do not let us know her name and it is significant because her name is of no account as her character is weak-willed, dull and infirm. What why he doesn't care about her inner world and doesn't interpret her as a person. Stylistic AnalysisThe story Ã¢â¬Å"The Beauty of the DeadÃ¢â¬ by Herbert Ernest Bates is casual in its subject-matter, describing a particular place at a particular time. In analysing this story we must point out its three main features: 1) the effect of striking concreteness and simplicity; 2) the impression of a melancholy meditating tone; 3) the implication suggested by the author as the ultimate stylistic effect. These three peculiarities are linked and interwoven to produce a joint impression, the EMs and SDs of the story are aimed at achieving the desired effe ct.SDs used in describing the picture are aimed at arousing a concrete image: epithets Ã¢â¬Å"yellowÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"grassyÃ¢â¬ , metonymical periphrasis Ã¢â¬Å"wanted wearÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"no step had trodden blackÃ¢â¬ suggesting paths which are seldom used. A careful and inclusive analysis must consider linguistic items at various levels, as all stylistically significant features form a complex. The impression of colloquial intonation of reminiscence is mainly created in the story through enjambment. The pause in the middle of the line (see the third lines in the first and the last stanzas) makes the tone of the lines natural and meditating.The combination of the SDs of enjambment and anadiplosis (the repetition of the pronoun Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ at the end of the line and at the beginning of the next line) in the last stanza produces the impression of a kind of afterthought uttered quite naturally after a pause: Lexical EMs and SDs emphasise the melancholy tone of the story. Thi s SD is that of antonomasia. The proper name is substituted by a common noun which stands in certain relations to the name. Beatrice in her reply to Benedick treats the word Ã¢â¬Å"disdainÃ¢â¬ as a living being ascribing to it human qualities.Hence here we have the SD of personification. Stylistic Analysis This story is one of Hemingway's masterpieces. It gives a deep insight into human nature and a true picture of contemporary social and family relations in bourgeois society. The writer leaves the surface comparatively bare: the meaning is plain and simple. The impression of simplicity which strikes the reader from the first is brought out not only by the plain dialogues, the common matter-of-fact events at the beginning of the story but by the language itself.A close study of the story for the purposes of examining its style involves a careful observation and a detailed description of the language phenomena at various levels. The text of the story is not homogeneous: the author 's narration is interrupted by the dialogues of the characters; inner thoughts of come characters (mostly Wilson's) are imperceptibly interwoven with the narration. A rigorous analysis of the vocabulary of the story clearly shows that the author employs common words in his narration and a restricted number of colloquial words in the dialogue and represented speech.Here are some examples of colloquial words: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ . In many instances the reader sees that the number of synonyms is deliberately restricted. Note the use of verbs of communication (Ã¢â¬Å"to sayÃ¢â¬ and its synonyms) times; Ã¢â¬Å"to tellÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â 3; Ã¢â¬Å"to askÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â 2; Ã¢â¬Å"to speakÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"to agreeÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â once each. No other verb of communication is used. Besides, the author does not usually add any adverbial modifier to show the manner in which the character speaks. See the first page where the author plainly states Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ . The impression of impassive matt er-of-fact narration is brought out also by a very limited use of words denoting feelings.On the first pages we can find only the following words: Ã¢â¬Å"pretendingÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"in triumphÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"smiledÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"likedÃ¢â¬ , AuthorÃ¢â¬â¢s scrupulous attention to minute details adds to the matter-of-fact and logical tone of the story. Underneath this simple exterior of restraint there lies a rich treasure of suggestions and implications. The very structure of the story adds to the effect of implication but the actual meaning of what is going on is not clear at the beginning of the story, as the feelings suggested by the writer are not precisely determined.The reader however feels that something has happened and that the characters are strained and full of hidden apprehension and suppressed emotions. The effect of implication ( ) and suspense () is brought about in various ways, firstly by the direct means of stating that something has happened but not revealing wha t. Observe the repetition of the word Ã¢â¬Å"happenÃ¢â¬ . Note the word Ã¢â¬Å"pretendingÃ¢â¬ which characterises from the start the atmosphere of suppressed emotion.Note the various cases of logical periphrasis used by the characters to say in a round-about way what happened that morning. The reader is kept in constant suspense: Ã¢â¬Å"the whole thingÃ¢â¬ ; Ã¢â¬Å"about itÃ¢â¬ ; Ã¢â¬Å"that lion businessÃ¢â¬ ; Ã¢â¬Å"something like todayÃ¢â¬ . Observe also the repeated use of the verb Ã¢â¬Å"to forgetÃ¢â¬ stressing the intention of the speaker not to think of some unpleasant fact; the verb Ã¢â¬Å"to forgetÃ¢â¬ is used four times and its contextual synonym Ã¢â¬Å"to dropÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â twice. The hints and suggestive remarks uttered by the characters in their seemingly plain unpretentious dialogues are very effective in their implication.The effect of implication and suspense is brought about indirectly too: The macro-context that comes after these words affects them and determines their meaning. The peculiar use of the verbs Ã¢â¬Å"to lookÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"to smileÃ¢â¬ may also be regarded as an indirect means of creating the effect of implication. However additional contextual meaning and emotive colouring is received mainly from the macrocontext. This manner of describing the character's reaction and emotions by presenting simple external actions may be considered a specific SDÃ¢â¬âmetonymical description which is realised only in the macrocontext.The SD of metonymical description makes the reader supply what is missing and creates the effect of implication. This is one of the ways in which Hemingway employs his Ã¢â¬Å"iceberg principleÃ¢â¬ : Ã¢â¬Å"I leave out what I know but knowledge is what makes the underwater part of the iceberg,Ã¢â¬ writes Hemingway. In a similar way the writer uses the verb Ã¢â¬Å"to smileÃ¢â¬ : the implication conveyed by this verb is also brought out in the macrocontext. The role of the macroconte xt in Hemingway's story is of utmost importance. Note instances where the verb Ã¢â¬Å"to smileÃ¢â¬ is used: Ã¢â¬Å"So author's story devoid at the beginning of any apparent emotional colouring, of any apparent expression of the characters' feelings is impassive and matter-of-fact only on the surface whereas beneath the surface can be found intense emotions, meditations, sufferings. Note that the feelings and emotional reactions of Mrs. Macomber and Wilson are mostly conveyed by this means. Note the role of repetition in heightening the impression of growing fear: the word Ã¢â¬Å"fearÃ¢â¬ is used here twice, and the word Ã¢â¬Å"afraidÃ¢â¬ is repeated three times.One more note about author's usage of words and how it is related to the description of his characters. The impartial tone and the absence of emotive words in describing Mrs. Macomber may be accounted for by two reasons: the writer's principle to leave the surface comparatively bare of any emotion, and the desire to emphasise the woman's nature by choosing relevant words and expressions (note the writer's way to explain her purpose for desiring to marry again Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"to better herselfÃ¢â¬ ). Analyse the use of the adjectives Ã¢â¬Å"redÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"blueÃ¢â¬ in the story.Similarly, the adjective Ã¢â¬Å"blueÃ¢â¬ is affected by the surrounding words (it is constantly used in such combinations as Ã¢â¬Å"cold blue eyesÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"his flat, blue, machinegunner's eyesÃ¢â¬ ) and had acquired an additional contextual meaning making it an epithet in the macrocontext. It is the macrocontext that determines the meanings of some words and suggests their implication in authorÃ¢â¬â¢s story, and therefore should not be underestimated. The grammatical peculiarities of the story serve the basic stylistic purpose Ã¢â¬â that of giving the impression of simplicity and mpartiality on the one hand, and creating implication and emotional tension, on the other. Long sentences which are s o characteristic of the author's narration in the story do not produce a sense of complexity. On the contrary, the long sentences give the illusion of simplicity. The impression of simplicity is generally maintained by a peculiar sentence structure. The most striking feature which is easily observed is the repetition of one and the same conjunction within the sentence. Read this sentence: Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ Similar structures can be seen on the same page: Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬ The use of one and the same conjunction and one and the ame type of subordinate clause within the sentence (a complex sentence with successive subordination) creates a monotonous analogous description where the author seems concerned only with presenting a bare enumeration of details. It is interesting to point out that folklore contains clear-cut structures of this type with successive subordination as in the well-known nursery rhyme Ã¢â¬Å"This is the house that Jack builtÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å". The established syntactical pattern which is repeated within the sentence is a stylistically significant feature in the story leading to a seeming lack of variety and maintaining the effect of simplicity.Note that this holds true not only of the sentence-structure but to a larger extent of the paragraph-structure. The established pattern (or patterns) is repeated with a slight variation throughout the paragraph giving the impression of analogy and logic in structure. Read the paragraph on p. XX beginning: Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬ The predominant sentence-type in the above paragraph is the complex sentence with a subordinate clause of time. The conjunction Ã¢â¬Å"whenÃ¢â¬ is repeated five times, the conjunctions Ã¢â¬Å"whileÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"beforeÃ¢â¬ are used once each. The paragraph being a unity of ideas presents in the story a striking unity of syntactic structure.There is no conspicuous topic sentence, the paragraph gives a series of details or actions which go on and on, as if the writer assumes that his r eaders want only to learn as quickly and easily as possible what happens. The unity of the paragraph manifests itself in the established syntactical pattern used throughout the whole of the paragraph and in the one and the same conjunction. Repetition assumes in the story various structural forms. Catch-word repetition (anadiplosis) is frequently used giving the impression of plain, logical structure: Ã¢â¬Å"Margot looked at them both and they both saw that she was going to cry. Ã¢â¬Å"But more than shame he felt cold, hollow fear in him. The fear was still thereÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å". Note that anadiplosis produces the effect of a Ã¢â¬Å"chain-patternÃ¢â¬ structure similar to that produced by successive subordination often used in the story. Anadiplosis is sometimes employed to connect successive paragraphs. The dominant conjunction which is employed frequently and variously in the story is Ã¢â¬Å"andÃ¢â¬ . The repetition of the conjunction Ã¢â¬Å"andÃ¢â¬ usually maintains paralle lism and rhythm: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ The effect of a rhythmical arrangement is heightened in this example by alliteration at the end of the paragraph.Suspense which is the basic compositional feature of the story manifests itself in the structure of most paragraphs. Read the paragraph by which the first part of the story culminates: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ Note that the paragraph tends toward balanced structure for the sake of contrast: Ã¢â¬Å"Macomber did not knowÃ¢â¬ ¦ ,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Wilson knewÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å". The repeated use of the words Ã¢â¬Å"knewÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"did not knowÃ¢â¬ adds to the effect of contrast and gives the impression of a certain established pattern of the paragraph.Observe that parallel constructions are interrupted by inserting modifiers (three instances of subordinate clause of time introduced by Ã¢â¬Å"beforeÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"whenÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"whenÃ¢â¬ ) and some other relevant detail. Syntactical parallelism supported and intensified by lexical repetition (four instances of Ã¢â¬Å"knowÃ¢â¬ ; Ã¢â¬Å"nor Ã¢â¬ ¦ norÃ¢â¬ ; Ã¢â¬Å"when, when Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å"; Ã¢â¬Å"how, how Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å") lends an unmistakable rhythm to the passage. Note that the length of sentences and clauses is shortened and the number of inserted details is lessened by the end of the paragraph and so causing a change in rhythm: from a slow, even rhythm to a rapid, excited rhythm.This change of rhythm heightens the emotional tension and reinforces the implication suggested by the last unexpected sentence of the paragraph: Ã¢â¬Å"He did not know how his wife felt except that she was through with him. Ã¢â¬ The repeated words do not assume any definite compositional pattern, such a simple scattered repetition contributes to the impression of a colloquial simplicity of narration: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ The principle of repetition which reveals itself in the use of the established syntactic pattern and the repetition of one and the same conjunction often leads to the SD of cum ulation: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ The clash between the yntactical analogy and semantic distance in the SD of cumulation brings about the effect of implication and hints at the real relations of the characters. All these similar features contribute to the impression of parallelism in the structure of the paragraph. Cumulation is striking as the clash between the grammatical identity and semantic difference is sudden and strong. Cumulation gives rise to implication and presents the first obvious hint at what happened before the story began. The main dramatic force is achieved by syntax Ã¢â¬â by the writer's masterly utilisation of the resources concealed in the syntactic structure of the language.Stylistic tendencies and peculiarities of the story manifest themselves in the passage most intensely and palpably. The passage tends to rhythmical structure: parallel constructions, various types of repetition, a peculiar scheme of sense-group division Ã¢â¬â all contribute to this impression. A ll these features lend balance to the passage. A change in rhythm from slow to rapid reinforces the effect of suspense and climax. Suspense is created by a number of interrupting but relevant details postponing the completion of the thought.The length of the interrupting phrases and coordinate clauses is shortened by the end of the passage (note once again that the last three clauses contain two sense-groups while the first four Ã¢â¬â three or six) and causing a change in rhythm adds to emotional tension. The sentences are not so long, not so fragmentary, the relevant details are not so numerous. Note that some details are repeated (Ã¢â¬Å"like slateÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"like hitting a slate roofÃ¢â¬ ). The rhythm of the paragraph is even and quiet giving the impression of an impassionate description.The paragraph may be regarded as a kind of comment on what happened. Note the use of the Past Perfect which plainly refers the actions to those which have been mentioned. The ide a of suspense and the effect of implication is masterfully revealed at the end of the story Ã¢â¬â the writer does not say plainly whether it was an accident or murder. The writer presents only a sequence of outward actions and the reader is left to imagine more than the words themselves convey. Assignments for Stylistic Analysis: 1. Speak on the subject-matter and the idea of the story. . Analyse the structure of the poem (its stanzas, rhythm, rhymes), note instances of enjambment and speak on its stylistic function. 3. What characters of the novel are described in the passage and what does the reader learn about them? 4. Who are the major and minor character/s? Describe them shortly. 5. What impression do you get from the protagonist? Discuss his/her character and his/her views as they are revealed through his/her speech. Describe the protagonistÃ¢â¬â¢s state of hopelessness and frustration. Comment on the protagonistÃ¢â¬â¢s words: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ . 6.Analyse the direct speech and speak on its peculiarities. 7. Discuss the meaning of the saying: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ and comment on its stylistic peculiarity. Say why he/she uses it. Speak on the way he/she interprets the above mentioned saying. What SD is used by him? 8. Find cases of periphrasis in her speech and speak of their function. 9. Discuss she attitude towards the situation, comment on lexical and phonetic EMs and SDs used in her speech and speak of the effect achieved through the use of these devices. 10. Pick out various types of metaphors and comment on their stylistic effect. 1. Comment on the meaning and stylistic peculiarities of some lines. 12. Dwell on the implication suggested by the author. 13. Pick out epithets, state their types and structure and speak on their stylistic function. 14. Comment on the exclamatory sentence 15. How do you account for the sudden transmission from literary vocabulary mostly used by the author (Ã¢â¬Å"under the auspicesÃ¢â¬ , etc. ) to the colloquial words (Ã¢â ¬Å"a confounded quarrelsome highbred jadeÃ¢â¬ )? What stylistic effect is achieved by this device? 16. Comment on the stylistic effect of the rhetorical question: 17.Speak on the author's attitude towards the society he describes. Pay attention to the EMs and SDs employed by the author (note the vocabulary of the passage, metaphors, metonymies, allusions, rhetorical questions and their stylistic function). 18. Speak on the scene and the characters introduced in the excerpt and SDs used to describe them. 19. Find various forms of repetition in the author's narration: the repetition of a sound (alliteration); of a conjunction (polysyndeton); of a notional word; of a syntactical pattern (parallelism) and speak on the role of repetition in the structure of a paragraph. 0. Analyse the SD of repetition from the point of view of its compositional design (anaphora, anadiplosis etc. ); note what kind of repetition prevails in the excerpt; speak on the stylistic functions of repetition. 21. Take the Xth paragraph for rigorous analysis; in doing so dwell on the following points: 1) the main thought of the paragraph and the way it is developed; 2) the SD of polysyndeton; 3) the metaphor, the way it is prolonged and the stylistic effect achieved; 4) represented speech, its type and stylistic function; 5) antithesis as the culmination point of the paragraph. 2. Comment on the different ways author manipulates with the remarks of the characters. 23. Summing up the analysis of the chapter pick out all passages where the author's ironic or sarcastic attitude towards high society and its corrupt morality is acutely felt and analyse the main SDs used to achieve this effect. 24. Summing up the analysis of the chapter/extract/passage/story, speak on the allegoric character of the story and on various SDs used to make the particular effect..
Friday, January 3, 2020
Samuel Gompers (January 27, 1850 Ã¢â¬â December 13, 1924) was a key American labor union leader who founded the American Federation of Labor (AFL) and served as its president for nearly four decades, from 1886 to 1894, and from 1895 until his death in 1924. He is credited with creating the structure of the modern American labor movement and establishing many of its essential negotiating strategies, such as collective bargaining. Fast Facts: Samuel Gompers Known for: Influential American labor union organizer and leaderBorn: January 27, 1850, in London England (migrated to the U.S. in 1863)ParentsÃ¢â¬â¢ Names: Solomon and Sarah GompersDied: December 13, 1924, in San Antonio, TexasEducation: Left school at age 10Key Accomplishments: Founded the American Federation of Labor (1886). President of the AFL for four decades from 1886 until his death. Created procedures for collective bargaining and labor negotiations that are still used todayWife: Sophia Julian (Married in 1867)Children: Ã From 7 to 12, names and dates of birth not recordedInteresting Fact: Though his name sometimes appears as Samuel L. Gompers, he had no middle name. Early Life and Education Samuel Gompers was born on January 27, 1850, in London, England, to Solomon and Sarah Gompers, a Dutch-Jewish couple originally from Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Though his name sometimes appears as Ã¢â¬Å"Samuel L. Gompers,Ã¢â¬ he had no recorded middle name. Despite being extremely poor, the family managed to send Gompers to a free Jewish school at age six. There he received a brief basic education, rare among poor families of the day. At age ten, Gompers left school and went to work as an apprentice cigar-maker. In 1863, at age 13, Gompers and his family migrated to the United States, settling in the slums of the Lower East Side of Manhattan in New York City.Ã Marriage On January 28, 1867, the seventeen-year-old Gompers married sixteen-year-old Sophia Julian. They remained together until SophiaÃ¢â¬â¢s death in 1920. The reported number of children the couple had together varied from seven to as many as 12, depending on the source. Their names and birth dates are not available. Young Cigar Maker and Budding Union Leader Once settled in New York, Gompers father supported the large family by making cigars in the basement of their home, assisted by young Samuel. In 1864, the 14-year-old Gompers, now working full time for local cigar-maker, joined and became active in the Cigar MakersÃ¢â¬â¢ Local Union No. 15, a union of New York cigar makers. In his autobiography published in 1925, Gompers, in recounting his cigar-rolling days, revealed his budding concern for workersÃ¢â¬â¢ rights and suitable working conditions. Ã¢â¬Å"Any kind of an old loft served as a cigar shop. If there were enough windows, we had sufficient light for our work; if not, it was apparently no concern of the management. Cigar shops were always dusty from the tobacco stems and powdered leaves. Benches and work tables were not designed to enable the workmen to adjust bodies and arms comfortably to [the] work surface. Each workman supplied his own cutting board of lignum vitae and knife blade.Ã¢â¬ In 1873, Gompers went to work for cigar maker David Hirsch Company, which he later described as a Ã¢â¬Å"high-class shop where only the most skilled workmen were employed.Ã¢â¬ By 1875, Gompers had been elected president of the Cigar MakersÃ¢â¬â¢ International Union Local 144. Founding and Leading the AFL In 1881, Gompers helped found the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions, which reorganized into the American Federation of Labor (AFL) in 1886, with Gompers as its first president. With a year-long break in 1895, he would continue to lead the AFL until his death in 1924. As directed by Gompers, the AFL focused on securing higher wages, better working conditions, and a shorter work week. Unlike some of the more radical union activists of the day, who were trying to reshape the fundamental institutions of American life, Gompers provided a more conservative style of leadership to the AFL. In 1911, Gompers faced jail for his participation in publishing a Ã¢â¬Å"boycott listÃ¢â¬ of companies that AFL members would not patronize. However, the U.S. Supreme Court, in the case of Gompers v. BuckÃ¢â¬â¢s Stove and Range Co., overturned his conviction. Gompers vs. the Knights of Labor, and Socialism Led by Gompers, the AFL steadily grew in size and influence, until by 1900, it had largely taken over the position of power previously held by the older Knights of Labor, Americans first labor union. While the Knights publicly denounced socialism, they sought a cooperative society in which the laborers owed the industries for which they worked. GompersÃ¢â¬â¢ AFL unions, on the other hand, were concerned only with improving the wages, working conditions, and daily lives of their members. Gompers detested socialism as supported by his rival labor organizer Eugene V. Debs, head of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW). Throughout his forty years as AFL president, Gompers opposed DebsÃ¢â¬â¢ Socialist Party of America. Ã¢â¬Å"Socialism holds nothing but unhappiness for the human race, Gompers said in 1918. Ã¢â¬Å"Socialism has no place in the hearts of those who would secure the fight for freedom and preserve democracy.Ã¢â¬ GompersÃ¢â¬â¢ Death and Legacy Having suffered from diabetes for years, GompersÃ¢â¬â¢ health began to fail in early 1923, when influenza forced him into the hospital for six weeks. By June 1924, he was unable to walk without assistance and was temporarily hospitalized again with congestive heart failure. Despite his increasingly frail condition, Gompers traveled to Mexico City in December 1924 to attend a meeting of the Pan-American Federation of Labor. On Saturday, December 6, 1924, Gompers collapsed on the floor of the meeting hall. When told by doctors that he might not survive, Gompers asked to be put on a train headed back to the U.S. saying he wanted to die on American soil. He died on December 13, 1924, in a San Antonio, Texas hospital, where his last words were, Ã¢â¬Å"Nurse, this is the end. God bless our American institutions. May they grow better day-by-day.Ã Gompers is buried in Sleepy Hollow, New York, just yards away from the grave of famed Gilded Age industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie.Ã Ã Today, Gompers is remembered as a poor European immigrant who went on to pioneer a distinctly American brand of unionism. His accomplishments have inspired later labor leaders, like George Meany, founder and longtime president of the AFL-CIO. Many of the procedures for collective bargaining and labor contracts created by Gompers and used by the unions of his AFL are still commonly used today.Ã Notable Quotes Though he left school at age ten and never completing a formal education, as a young teen, Gompers formed a debate club with several of this friends. It was here that he developed and honed his skills as an eloquent and persuasive public speaker. Some of his better-known quotes include: Ã¢â¬Å"What does labor want? We want more schoolhouses and less jails; more books and less arsenals; more learning and less vice; more leisure and less greed; more justice and less revenge; in fact, more of the opportunities to cultivate our better natures.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The worst crime against working people is a company which fails to operate at a profit.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The trade union movement represents the organized economic power of the workers... It is in reality the most potent and the most direct social insurance the workers can establish.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No race of barbarians ever existed yet offered up children for money.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Show me the country that has no strikes and Ill show you the country in which there is no liberty.Ã¢â¬ Sources Gompers, Samuel (autobiography) Ã¢â¬Å"Seventy Years of Life and Labor.Ã¢â¬ E. P. Dutton company (1925). Easton Press (1992). ASIN: B000RJ6QZCÃ¢â¬Å"American Federation of Labor (AFL).Ã¢â¬ The Library of CongressLivesay, Harold C. Ã¢â¬Å"Samuel Gompers and Organized Labor in America.Ã¢â¬ Boston: Little, Brown, 1978