Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Narrative Report On The First PTA Gener Essay

In order to settle things up, Bunga Elementary School, headed by our principal Mrs. Jessica Narvasa, together with her teaching staff, officers of the Parent – Teacher Association (PTA) and the Barangay Bunga Council, which is headed by Brgy. Capatain Edgardo Aguilar had its 1st PTA General Assembly Meeting at Bunga Elementary School Stage last July 04, 2014. The purpose of this meeting is to discuss the following: 1. Personal Safety Lesson 2. SOSA Performance Indicator/School Policy/SIP 3. School Feeding 4. Tree Planting and School GPP Competition Mechanics 5. Class Report/Feed backing 6. Voluntary Contribution 7. Family Day 8. Expected Monthly Activities/District and Division Competition In this meeting, it was majorly favored that in celebration with Family Day this coming December 2014, families would celebrate it together with Jollibee and it will be a fund-raising. Moreover, the school and the barangay agreed to jointly implement the project (which is the water facilities) that will provide a safe water supply system to the school’s children. In addition, there was also an open forum between teachers and parents wherein they were free to ask questions regarding to the agenda’s that had been discussed. There were many questions raised by parents that were answered well by the school staffs. The meeting was then ended ensuring that all the matters that have been tackled and agreed was fully understand by the concerned subjects of this meeting, and was hoping for positive outcomes.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Impact of Employee Motivation on Performance

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue4- 2012 Impact of Employee Motivation on Performance (Productivity) In Private Organization 1Nupur Chaudhary, 2Dr. Bharti Sharma, 1Research Scholar, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur, 2Associate Professor, St. Wilfred. College, Jaipur, Abstract – Doing Business all over the world is very challenging. Corporate performance and revenue growth are challenge by Internal and external operating environment factors.To survive in profitable way in the highly challenging and competitive global market economy, all the factor of Employee Retention & Production – machine, materials & men, – should be managed in a impressive way Among the factors of production the human resource constitutes the biggest challenge because unlike other inputs employee management calls for accomplished handling of thoughts, feelings & emotions to protected highest productivity.High productivity is a long-term benefits of Empl oyee motivation Motivated employee is a valuable asset which delivers huge value to the Organization in maintaining and strengthening its business and revenue growth. The attached project paper studies Impact of employee motivation on performance (Productivity) in private organization. Keywords: Motivation, Productivity, Employee satisfaction, Working Environment, Employee Performance: 1. INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Background of the Study Now days doing Business all over the world is very challenging. orporate performance and revenue growth are challenge by Internal and external operating environment factors To survive in profitable way in the highly challenging and competitive global market economy, all the factor of production – machine ,materials & men,– should be managed in a impressive way Among the factors of production the human resource constitutes the biggest challenge because unlike other inputs employee management calls for accomplished handling of thoughts, feelings & emotions to protected highest productivity. High productivity is a long-term benefit of Employee motivation. 1. 2 Research Problems Employees management guide to a competitive benefit in the form of more motivate workforce by extension improved operational & business performance. The research problem question to be answer in this research is to define the major factors that motivate employs in diverse companies and to see if there is any particular organization purpose that depends on organizational inimitability employee behavior. 1. 3 Objectives of the Research study Identify the factors that encourage positive motivational behavior among employees is the Objective of this research.This in turn would develop customer service, efficient time management in each organization. 1. 4 Limitation of the Research Study Research study can be briefly declared the limitation in following points: Title of the questionnaire about Motivation so that the respondents thought that they should b e precious by the motivation system earlier than filling the questionnaires. The length of the questionnaire – around 14 questions. The collective respondents will be analyzed and the results of the questionnaire will be documented 1. 5 Definition of Terms a.Motivation: Motivation is the word derived from the word ‘motive’ which means needs, desires, wants or drives within the persons. It is the process of inspiring people to actions to achieve the goals. In the work goal background the psychological factors motivating the people’s behavior can be- Job-Satisfaction Achievement Term Work, etc Need for Money Respect One of the most important functions of management is to create enthusiasm amongst the employees to execute in the best of their abilities. Therefore the role of a leader is to arouse interest in presentation of employees in their jobs.The process of motivation consists of three stages:- 1. A felt need or oblige 2. A incentive in which need s have to be aroused 3. When needs are satisfied, the satisfaction or achievement of goals. Note: motivation is an emotional fact which means needs and wants of the have to be tackled by framing an incentive plan. b. Employee satisfaction: Whether employees are happy and satisfied and pleasing their desires & needs at work. Many measures claim that employee satisfaction is a factor in employee motivation, employee goal. ISSN: 2249-0183http://www. internationaljournalssrg. orgPage 29International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue4- 2012 Achievement and positive employee confidence in the workplace. Employee satisfaction, while normally a positive in your organization, can also be a disappointment if ordinary employees continue because they are satisfied with your work environment. c. Employee Performance: The activity of performance ; of doing something fruitfully; by knowledge as famous from simply possessing it; A performance Comprises an event in which normal ly one group of people the performer or Performers act in a particular way for another group of people . Productivity: Productivity is that which people can produce with the smallest amount effort Productivity is a ratio to calculate how well an organization or individual, industry, country converts input belongings, labor, materials, machines etc. into goods and services e. Working Environment: Stresses, influences, and competitive, situation, civilizing, demographic, profitable, usual, political, regulatory, and environmental factors that effect the survival, operations, and development of an organization. We have a tendency, however, to hear about healthy work environments.A work environment does not require a job. It requires that work has to be done in some place. These can also be considered work environments. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 1 Motivation 1. Payment 2. Promotion 3. Benefits 4. Recognition What Is Employee Motivation? Motivations are an employee’s intrinsic enthu siasm about and drive to accomplish activities related to work. Motivation is that interior drive that causes a person to decide to take action. An individual’s motivation is influenced by biological, intellectual, social & emotional factors.Motivation is a multifaceted; we can not easily define to motivation, intrinsic driving force that can also be influenced by external factors. Every person has activities, events, people, and goals in his or her life that he or she finds motivating. By using intrinsic satisfaction & extrinsic factor organization can inspire employee motivation at work. Fulfilling the employee's needs and expectations from work and the workplace factors that enable employee motivation – or not. These variables make motivating employees challenging. Some time employers fail to understand the importance of motivation in accomplishing their mission and vision.Even when they understand the significance of motivation, they lack the skill and knowledge to provide a work environment that fosters employee motivation. Here are thoughts about encouraging and inspiring employee motivation at work. Factors to Encourage Motivation. Management and leadership actions that allow employees, Believe about your employees strengths! Inquire employees what they want Teach employees to measure their own success. crystal clear communication about factors important to employees, Treating employees with respect, Providing regular employee respect, ? Feedback and training from managers and leaders, Industry-average benefits and recompense, Carry an idea notebook Explain your reward systems. Inquire employees for information about their performance. Communicate! Stop Distracting Employees 2. 2. Importance of Motivation Motivation is the most important factors influential organizational efficiency. All facilities organizational will go to waste in lack of motivated people to utilize these facilities efficiently. Every superior in the organi zation must motivate its subordinates for the right types of behavior.The presentation of human beings in ISSN: 2249-0183http://www. internationaljournalssrg. orgPage 30 International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue4- 2012 the organization is dependent on the capability in the motivation. Motivation is a helpful instrument in the hands of management in exciting the workforce. Motivation increases the willingness of the workers to work, thus increasing effectiveness of the organization. Best utilization of resources: – Reduction in Labor Problems: – Sizeable increase in production and productivity: ? Basis of Cooperation. Better Image: -. The human resource manager purpose should be to help the general manager in keeping the employees satisfied with their jobs. One more goal in organization is the goal for the services manager is to develop motivated employees and support their morale regarding their respective works. The performance will be poor if the employee is not satisfied & happy. Workplace dissatisfaction frequently leads organization and its employee’s poor performance. The Effect of Motivation on Employee ProductivityMotivated employees are inclined to be more productive than non-motivated employees. Most businesses make some pains to motivate workers but this is normally easier said than done. Employees are all individuals with different like’s dislikes and needs, and different things will motivate each. 1. Motivated Employees Are More Productive .If employee will satisfied and happy then he/she will do his /her work in a very impressive way, and then the result will be good, on the other hand motivated employee will motivate other employees in office. 2. Decision-making and practical ExpectationsIt is important to engage employees in the decision-making process, but create realistic expectations in the process. 3. Job Description, Work Environment and Flexibility Employee doing the right job fo r his personality and skill set, and performing well at the job greatly increases employee motivation and satisfaction. A safe and non-threatening work environment is necessary to maintain a high level of employee motivation. Flexible human resource policies, flexible time, work from home, childcare also be liable to have happier and more motivated workers. 4. Pay and BenefitsKeeping employees motivated with good benefits is easy. Where to draw the line at generous benefits that motivate all employees, versus raises and larger salaries to retain and attract the best workers and keep them happy and motivated to be working for you, are more difficult. . 5. Company Culture Creating a positive and employee-friendly company culture is a great motivational tool. 3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3. 1 Research Design This is a descriptive . In this research we have enough data on the concept & research material . Questionnaire method is used for collecting data. 3. 2 Sampling ProcedureThe study shou ld be conducted with people from different locations. The questionnaires were e-mailed to 70 workers in Jaipur who working in various departments with different job responsibilities and organization position. 3. 3 Instrument Used: Survey can be defined as a method of primary data collection in which information is collected by email & analyzed. 3. 4 Scale Validity and Reliability The scales used to measure the variables in the questionnaire are Numerical scale. 3. 5 Data Collection Procedures Internet Surveys is used. For much research, data collection using the internet is frequently an effective method.In Internet Survey it is very easy to get the respondents feedback in short period of time. 4. DATA COLLECTION & ANALYSIS 4. 1 Introduction The data for the research has been collected using internet questionnaire. The questionnaire was distributed randomly to a sample of employees, over 70 employees who were working in various departments, with different job responsibilities and or ganization position. 4. 2 Data Analysis After collecting the filled questionnaire, they were analyzed for presentation of research findings under data analysis. 1. From how many years you are worked with the present organization?Less than 1 year|5|(7. 7%)| 1-3 years|15|(28. 8%)| 3-5 years|12|(19. 05)| 5-10 years|21|(40. 4%)| The research was directed to find information on the duration of service the employee has been with the organization. Survey results indicated that highest number of 21 40. 4% respondents had been working between 5-10 years and this followed by 15 respondents 28. 8% who have been with the organization between 1-3 years. Respondents who have been working for the shortest period of time less than 1 year stood with 5 respondents 7. 7%. 2. In which department you are work in? Finance and Accounting|2|(5. 60%)|ISSN: 2249-0183http://www. internationaljournalssrg. orgPage 31 International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue4- 2012 Perceptions||Agr|S ome|Neutral|Disagre| Strongly||ee|what||e| |||Agree||| supervisor listens|20|24|7(13. 21|23. 77%)| to me||||%)|| supervisor|is||||| knowledgeable||||| about my work|17|25|8|3| supervisor is fair|12|23|16|2| supervisor|||||| supports personal||||| Development||11|27|13|1| supervisor|has||||| down-to-earth|||||| expectations||10|26|13|4| about my work||||| Human Resource Management|9|25%| Information Technology|2|(5. 60%)| Manufacturing|5|(13. 9%)|Research and Development|11|30. 6%| Sales and Marketing|7|(19. 4%)| Other (please specify)|17|| Regarding the inquiry on the nature of work performed by the respondents, a highest number of 11 respondents 30. 6% were engaged in Research and Development. With 9 respondents 25% came next for Human Resource Management. Sales and Marketing 7 (19. 4%), Manufacturing 5 (13. 9%)IT and Finance & Accounting 2 (5. 60%) 3. What is your job responsibility? Operative Employee|33|(63. 50%)| Supervisor|13|(25. 28%)| Manager|5|(9. 6%)| Senior Management|1|( 1. 9%)| The research inquired to find the nature of jobs of respondents.The research showed that highest number 33 respondents 63. 50% were engaged in operative employee related job responsibilities and this closely followed by 13 respondents 25. 58%. These were followed next by Manager which is 5 (9. 6%) & Senior Management that is 1 (1. 9%). 4. How much satisfied you are from the present organization? Very Satisfied|6|(11. 5%)| Satisfied|32|(61. 5%)| Neutral|10|(19. 2%)| Dissatisfied|4|(7. 7%)| Very Dissatisfied|1|(1. 9%)| The research was directed to find how satisfied the respondents are with their present organization and results shows that Very Satisfied 6 (11. %),Satisfied 32 (61. 5%)Neutral10 (19. 2%),Dissatisfied 4 (7. 7%) Very Dissatisfied1 (1. 9%) 5. About your supervisor / manager An inquiry was made to know what kind of perceptions the employees have about their supervisor and manager. Results indicated the following: Supervisor Listens to employees Positive Agreement:| 44 (83. 02%)| Neutral:|7 (13. 21%)| Disagreed:|2 (3. 77%)| Supervisor Have knowledge about employee’s work Positive Agreement:|42 (79. 25%)| Neutral:|8 (15. 09%)| Supervisor being fair to employees| Disagreed:|2 (3. 77%)| Positive Agreement:|35 (66. 04%)| Neutral:|16 (30. 19%)| Disagreed:|2 (3. 7%)| Supervisor Support personal development| Positive Agreement:|38 (71. 70%)| Neutral:|13 (24. 53%)| Disagreed:|1 (1. 89%)| Supervisor has realistic expectation of employee contribution Positive Agreement:|36 (67. 92%)| Neutral:|13 (24. 53%)| Disagreed:|4 (7. 55%)| Supervisor being fair to employees| Positive Agreement:|35 (66. 04%)| Neutral:|16 (30. 19%)| Disagreed:|2 (3. 77%)| 6. How much satisfaction you are with you on the whole management? Perception||Very|Good|Neutral|Bad| |||Good|||| relationship with your|16|26|11|1| boss||||||| boss/supervisor's||11|26|15|1| management abilities|||||Communication|with|11|13|24|5| general management||||| appreciation|from|5|18|22|8| managemen t|||||| |||||| Career|development|5|19|22|7| support||from||||| supervisor|or||||| management|||||| An inquiry was made to know whether the employees are fully satisfied with their current management. Results indicated the following: Relationship you’re with boss Very Good:|16 (29. 63%)| Good:|26 (48. 15%)| Neutral:|11 (20. 37%)| Boss’s / Supervisor’s management abilities Very Good:|11 (20. 37%)| Good:|26 (48. 15%)| Neutral:|15 (27. 78%)| Bad:|1 (1. 89%)| ISSN: 2249-0183http://www. internationaljournalssrg. rgPage 32 International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue4- 2012 Communication with general management|| Very Good:|11 (20. 37%)||| Good:|13 (24. 07%)||| Neutral:|24 (44. 44%)||| Bad:|5 (9. 26%)||| Appreciation from management||| Very Good:|5 (9. 26%)||| Good:|18 (33. 33%)||| Neutral|22 (40. 74%)||| Bad:|8 (14. 81%)||| Career|development|support|from| supervisor/management||| Very Good:|5 (9. 26%)||| Good:|19 (35. 19%)||| Neutral:|22 (40 . 74%)||| Bad:|7 (12. 96%)||| 7. Mark your satisfaction level with your supervisor manager or management for response to suggestions proposed by you?Very Satisfied|5| Satisfied|29| Neutral|13| Dissatisfied|4| Very Dissatisfied|1| investigation on the satisfaction levels of employees to suggestions they propose to supervisor, manager and the management indicated that satisfaction registered with 29 respondents 55. 8% which is higher than employees expressing neutral with 13 respondents 25. 0% and 5 respondents 9. 6% were very satisfied employees and 4 respondents were dissatisfied employees. In this case, the highest respondents were registered by the satisfactions employees which is very good indication. 8.How much you give rating to your job satisfaction? Perception||Satis|Very|Un|Very| ||facto|Satisfa|sati|Unsatisf| ||ry|ctory|sfac|actory| ||||tory|| Recognition|for|30|11|8|3| your hard work||||| Development||25|4|18|6| opportunities|||||| available|||||| Your pay level as|25|6|11 |11| compared|to||||| similar position in||||| the industry|||||| Your performance|24|6|20|3| feedback|from||||| management|||||| With reference to job satisfaction in terms of the level of recognition employees 30 respondents 56. 60% were satisfied as against 8 respondents 15. 09% who were not presently satisfied with their work 9.How much satisfied you are with the level of training & development received? Whether the levels of training employees receive supports in the development of job treatment was inquired into and the response indicates the following. In respect of initial training and development which employees receive 32 respondents 59. 26% expressed satisfied while 21 respondents 38. 89% expressed dissatisfaction. As regard the ongoing training, 31 respondents 57. 41% expressed satisfied while 22 respondents 40. 74% expressed dissatisfied Perception|||Satisfa|Very|Unsati|Very| ||||ctory|Satisf|sfactor|Unsatis| |||||actory|y|factory|Initial|training|26|6|14|7| received|wh en||||| hired|||||||| Ongoing|training|19|11|13|9| necessary||to||||| perform your|job||||| well|||||||| Self|development|18|8|18|7| support||||||| Preparation|for|15|6|15|14| career||||||| advancement|||||| 10. Knowledge of your job among work force Perception||Stron|Agree|Agr|Neutral| |||gly|Somewh|ee|Disagre| ||||at||e| Workforce|has|8|27|15|2| job-relevant|||||| knowledge|||||| /skills necessary||||| for|successful||||| job completion||||| Information was also sought to find out whether the workforce around the employee has job-relevant knowledge and skills.Results obtained indicated that 35 employees stated in positive agreement and this contrasts with 2 employees who disagreed the workforce is capable of performing given tasks. 15 respondents were neutral being unable to agree or disagree to the stated inquiry. 11. Skills Development of employee Perception|||Strongl|Agree|Agre|Neutral| |||y|Somewh|e|Disagre| ||||at||e| Opportunities|are|8|20|18|6| given to get better||||| my s kills|for|the||||| job||||||| Supervisors/Team|7|21|18|6| Leaders|support||||| employees growth||||| Management||6|19|20|7| ISSN: 2249-0183http://www. internationaljournalssrg. rgPage 33 International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue4- 2012 imitate efforts to get better training on underperformers in my department Information on whether the workforce is given opportunity to improve their job skills results obtained indicated 28 employees 51. 85% were satisfied with agreement and against this a low number of 6 respondents 11. 11% disagreed to the issue and 18 respondents were unable to confirm their opinion either positively or negatively. 12. Employee Development Support. 34 respondents 62. 96% positively stated their satisfaction but against these nly 6 respondents 11. 11% expressed their disagreement. While 13 respondents 24. 07% were neutral being unable agree or disagree positively. To the inquiry whether the supervisor / team leader offer valuable informa tion on how increase productivity. Results obtained indicated that 34 respondents 62. 96% were in strong / somewhat agreement compared to 6 respondents 11. 11% who disagreed that management, supervisor and team leader offer great desired level of support. 13 respondents 24. 07% were unable to voice their convictions either positively or negatively. 13. Use of Right Employee TalentPerceptio|Stron|Agree|Agree|Neutral| n||gly|Somewh||Disagree| |||at||| Organizati|9|23|17|4| on|uses||||| my|talent||||| in the||||| workplace||||| To the inquiry whether the organization is making use of employee’s talent an overwhelming 32 respondents 60. 38% expressed in positive agreement while only 4 respondents 7. 55% expressed their disagreements implying the employee has various other talents but the management is not allowing him or her to initiate 14. Your Performance Expectation Understanding & Performance Appraisals Perception|Stro|Agree|Agr|Neutral| ||ngly|Somew|ee|Disagree| |||hat|||In my most recent|7|26|15|6| performance||||| appraisal,|I||||| understood what I||||| had to do to be||||| rated at|different||||| performance level (for example fully successful, Outstanding) The employees are capable to understand performance appraisals which the organization is carrying out every now and then, 33 respondents 61. 11% replied positively that they are able to fully understand what the appraisals demand or expect from them. Only 4 respondents 7. 41% denied that employees are able to understand them and to expect them to offer wholehearted collaborations to other employees.Perception||Strongly|Agree|Agree|Neutral| ||||Somewhat||Disagree| Supervisors/|5|29|13|6| Team||||||| Leaders|in||||| my|work||||| support||||||| employee|||||| development||||| 5. Conclusion 5. 1 Summary Employee Relationship with the boss had find as Good by 26 respondents 48. 15% as in opposition to only 1 respondent who registered Bad relationship. This report shows that the boss has very good rel ationship with employee all the issues which concern by the employees directly raise to top management or the boss solve the circumstances and keep a good progress and relationship with employees. 6 respondents 48. 15% were of the belief that Boss / Supervisors management ability as being good and this is a very good sign. It shows that employees totally trusting & regarding decisions of the top management. Communication with the boss / management also registered well with 24 respondents 44. 44% as against only 5 respondents 9. 26% who registered badly in communication. This is a good sign with high good communication between the boss & the employees. Acknowledgment from management was registered well with 23 respondents 42. 59% which is a good sign.Employees become proud that their efforts are being accepted. They will get more of interest in their jobs & keep trying to do more efforts. Career Development support from Supervisor/Management was also, listed as Good with 24 responden ts 44. 45%. 6. Conclusion Study shows that the employee motivation has direct impact on productivity and growth. A highly motivated employee invests his / her best hard work in carrying out each and every aspect of his / her duties and responsibilities. Improved job performances of the employee will add value to the organization itself and to the employee’s productivity.The experimental results ISSN: 2249-0183http://www. internationaljournalssrg. orgPage 34 International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume2Issue4- 2012 of this study show that the motivation of the employee has reward to the employee and the organization and the organization will keep the faithfulness of the employee at the high climax. Also, the employee will trust his /her organization, supervisor and top management. Form these observations of details it is very clear that business organizations can live and grow by taking care of their employees.In the free market economy under today's globali zation only organizations which follow high-performance paying attention on their employees can live and growth quickly and securely. References: 1. â€Å"Motivating and Retaining Top Talent through Employee Engagement† http://www. insala. com/Articles/employee-development/motivatingand-retainin-top-talent-through-employee-engagemnet. asp. 2. â€Å"Motivation as tool to improve productivity on the construction site. † http://www. cib2007. com/papers/CIDB2008%20 Final%20paper%20No 2024a. pdf. 3. The Influence of Employee Involvement on Productivity: A Review of Research- June 2000†. http://www. hrsdc. gc. ca/en/cs/sp/hrsd/prc/publica tions/research/2000- 002584/page03. shtml. 4. â€Å"The business impact of effective employee management. http://www. mckpeople. com. au/Sitemedia/w3svc 161/Uploads/Docume nts/2af1e130-34a7-4c38-9415-b7fa45a1a52c. pdf 5. â€Å"Value Creation-The Key Performance Indicators. † http://www. hkiaat. org/images/uploads/articles/V al ue. pdf. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Motivation 7. Employee satisfaction http://humanresources. about. com/od/employees urvey1/g/employee_sat sfy. htm 7. Employee satisfaction http://humanresources. about. com/od/employees urvey1/g/employee_satisfy. htm 8. Employee Performance http://dictionary. babylon. com/performance 9. Ayeni, C. O. , & Phopoola, S. O. 2007. ‘Work Motivation, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Commitment of Library Personnel in Academic and Research Libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria’, Library Philosophy and Practice 2007. 10. Balfour, D. , & Wechsler, B. 1996. ‘Organizational Commitment’, Public Productivity & Management Review, vol. 19, pp. 256-277. 11. Berger, J. B. , & Schwabo, D. P. 1980. ‘Pay incentives and pay atisfaction’, Industrial Relations, vol. 19, no. 2, 206-210. 12. Brudney, J. L. , & Coundrey, S. E. 1993. ‘Pay for performance: Explaining the differences in managerial motivation’, Public Product ivity & Management Review, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 129-144. 13. Cote, S. , & Heslin, P. 2003. ‘Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment’. 14. Currall, S. C. , Towler, A. J. , Judge, T. A. , & Kohn, L. 2005. ‘Pay satisfaction and organizational outcomes’, Person ISSN: 2249-0183http://www. internationaljournalssrg. orgPage 35 PDF to Word[-;0] [-;0] – http://pdfonline. blogspot. com

1% of Local Police Departments

Reflections from the One-Percent of Local Police Departments with Mandatory Four-Year Degree Requirements For New Hires: Are They Diamonds in the Rough? Diana Bruns Bacone College ***Contact information Diana Bruns, Ph. D. Department Chairperson and Professor, Criminal Justice Studies Bacone College 2299 Old Bacone Road Muskogee, OK 74403 [email  protected] edu cell: 918-781-7295 office: 918-781-7295 **Diana Bruns is the Department Chairperson and Professor of Criminal Justice Studies at Bacone College in Muskogee, OK.Reflections from the One-Percent of Local Police Departments with Mandatory Four-Year Degree Requirements For New Hires: Are They Diamonds in the Rough? Abstract Countless studies have permeated the literature regarding the utility of a bachelor’s degree for police officers. Local law enforcement agencies with mandatory four-year degree requirements serve as the population for this study relative to the current status of college degreed officers, as well as pop ulation demographics and commonalities among such departments.The utility of college degree requirements, choice of academic discipline and why four-year degree requirements nationwide are merely a preference, not a standard mandatory hiring requirement is discussed. Current minimum educational requirements for local and state police agencies and implications for the future of the college-degreed officers are explored. Hiring college-educated candidates in the law enforcement field does not guarantee they will be good officers.Being a police officer is hard and to be successful, you have to want to be a police officer. Individuals who receive the required degree in law enforcement have demonstrated their desire. Desire is something very hard to evaluate, but such an important trait. If all other qualities are equal—the college graduate with a four-year degree in criminal justice or related field should be hired as police officers before one who doesn’t have the degree. Police Chief from department with mandatory degree requirement Introduction and Background The relevance of a college degree for police officers has been debated for decades. Numerous studies have been conducted regarding the importance of the degreed officer, while others have described how a college degree is not an essential or important ingredient for success among police officers. That precise debate—the worth of the bachelor’s degree for police officers is not the focus of this endeavor.The focus here is central to three vital panels’ recommendations from 1967-1974 proclaiming that police officers obtain baccalaureate degree—the President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice, the National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals, and the American Bar Association Project on Standards for Criminal Justice—and why so few local and state police departments have followed suit in requiring tha t police officers hold baccalaureate degrees, as less than 1% of such departments require a four-year degree (Hickman and Reeves, 2006).It is evident that leaders in law enforcement are hesitant to embrace the educational movement. Roberg and Bonn (2004) reiterated the nearly nonexistent numbers of police departments requiring degrees. Although leaders in law enforcement continue to hesitate the implementation of educational requirements (Carlan, 2007; Roberg and Bonn, 2004; Breci, 1997;Remington, 1990), recruitment for college graduates continues to increase. Carlan (2007) examined the worth of the criminal justice degree as valued by police officers and found that In this study, police officers (n=299) with varying levels of experience and riminal justice education revealed positive attitudes concerning the degree’s value with regard to conceptual development for employment purposes. The positive assertions in this study reflect well on the ability of criminal justice progr ams to prepare its clientele for meaningful employment challenges (p. 616). Johnston, Cheurprakobkit, and McKenzie (2002) revealed that law enforcement administrators stressed that the role of education should place importance in aiding police officers with knowledge of the legal aspects of policing as well as report writing, ethics, and procedures.The President’s Commission (1967) reported that without higher educational requirements, quality in police services could not be achieved or attained. However, over forty years later, in 2009, although most police agencies do report that they prefer a college-degreed officer, the majority of police agencies (local, state and special jurisdiction) do not require anything more than a high school diploma or equivalent. Upon reviewing 36 departments that require a four-year degree, this exploratory analysis attempts to reveal and explore the reasoning behind the small number of police departments actually requiring the degree.Results o f this analysis will describe the departments with four-year mandatory degree requirements and characteristics of such departments will include opinions of police chiefs regarding why a college degree is important to police. Qualitative explanations will yield information regarding how explemplary practices of a few departments should serve as role models and guides for departments across the nation in the one-hundred year quest to professionalize the policing field. As the literature suggests, police administrators do prefer police officers to hold a baccalaureate degree, but do not require it.Verrill (2007) called for the need to determine why the select one-percent of local police departments who require the degree actually do so. This study attempts to answer that question. As stated previously, debates pertaining to the usefulness and value of a college degree for police officers have been commonplace in criminal justice literature for decades. However, at the outset, it is unc lear how many police departments actually require a four-year degree and the location of such departments. This lack of clarity is further exemplified by ncertainty as to how many police officers and police agencies there actually are the in U. S. , leads to difficulty in counting police agencies (Maguire, Snipes, Uchida, and Townsend, 1998). Whatever the case, we can be assured that few police agencies (non-federal) actually require a bachelor’s degree. Is the Type of Degree Important? Verrill (2007) described the sparse amount of literature concerning the advantage or worth of a bachelor’s degree in criminal justice and whether criminal justice employers give preferentiality to vocational over theoretical degrees or vice versa.Verrill’s study reviewed entry-level educational requirements for criminal justice agencies in Florida, where only two local police departments out of N=261 sampled required a bachelor’s degree. Realistically, Verrill’s sam ple is indicative of local police departments nationwide, as less than one-percent require a bachelor’s degree as a prerequisite for employment. It is unclear at this point, from the literature, whether those one-percent of police departments who require four-year degrees specify which discipline they prefer.This analysis reveals striking information regarding the few police departments that require the degree and their preferences regarding the discipline as well as if they prefer that police candidates have degrees pertaining to either vocational or theoretical orientations. Bostrom (2005) addressed differences in levels of performance and work habits among officers who had obtained Bachelor of Arts degrees and Bachelor of Science degrees, finding that officers with Bachelor of Arts degrees have better work habits (measured by sick time usage, traffic collisions, discipline) than officers with a Bachelor of Science degree.Although results were detailed with caution, as this was an exploratory study at one large police department, Bostrom called for future research in this area. Schafer and Castellano (2005) attempted to extricate the relationships that subsist among work experience, educational background and attitudes toward criminal justice education, once again finding, â€Å"the quality of police service will not significantly improve until higher educational requirements are established for its personnel† (p. 300). Research Questions 1. What is currently known about educational requirements for local and state police departments/agencies? 2.How many police departments (local) have a four-year degree requirement and where are those departments? Who makes up the one-percent of police departments that the literature refers to as requiring four-year degrees? What is the range in size of police departments that have the four-year degree requirement? Are they large departments or small departments? 3. How many departments that have the four-year degree requirement will waive the requirement, and under what conditions can the educational requirement be waived? 4. What are the education levels of chiefs of police in departments that have a four-year degree requirement? . What are the mean starting salaries for the departments that require a four-year degree? Are the starting salaries for police officers in police departments with four-year degree requirements higher than salaries for police officers in departments without four-year degree requirements? 6. Do police chiefs in departments with four-year degree requirements prefer that officers have a degree in criminal justice? 7. Do police chiefs in departments with four-year degree requirements have a preference of vocational (hands-on) orientation rather than an academic (theoretical) orientation? . Have applicant pools increased, decreased or stayed the same since their four-year degree requirement was mandated? 9. Do the police chiefs believe the degree requirement will c hange in time, or will it remain a mandate, with no exceptions? 10. Regarding police departments with the four-year degree requirement, why does their respective department require a four-year degree? 11. Regarding police departments with the four-year degree requirement, why do police chiefs believe so few departments across the nation actually require the degree?Current Knowledge About Educational Requirements for US Police Departments According to the U. S. Department of Justice (2004), there are 12,766 local police departments with 3,067 sheriff’s offices, 49 primary state law enforcement agencies, 1,481 special jurisdiction agencies, and 513 ‘other’ agencies totally 17,876 law enforcement agencies. As of 2003, in a sample of 3000 police departments, 98% of local police departments had an educational requirement for new recruits; 18% had ‘some type’ of college requirement; ine percent required a two-year degree and less than one-percent required a four-year degree (Hickman and Reaves, 2006). Another source, The International Association for Chiefs of Police (2008) announced that 16% of state police agencies require a two-year degree, while four-percent require a four-year degree; 13% of county police agencies require a two-year degree and an unknown percentage of county police agencies require a four-year degree. Nine percent of local police departments require a two-year degree and two-percent require a four-year degree.However, it was unclear the name and location of the departments that required a two or a four-year degree. Furthermore, it is unclear as to where that two-percent was derived. Overall, scarce information is available regarding which departments require a two or a four-year degree. By searching state police agency and state highway patrol websites, it is evident that only three state police departments require officers to hold four-year degrees—Illinois State Police, New Jersey State Police, and Nort h Dakota Highway Patrol. All three agencies, however, will waive educational requirements.Regarding the New Jersey State Police’s minimum qualifications, An applicant must have (1) a bachelor’s degree, signifying completion of the undergraduate curriculum and graduation from an accredited college or university or, (2) alternatively, an associate’s degree or have complete 60 college credits from an accredited college or university, plus at least two years of satisfactory employment, or (3) alternately, have completed 30 college credits from an accredited college or university, plus at least two years of active duty military service with an honorable discharge (http://www. jsp. org/recruit/qual. html). The Illinois State Police has the following minimum educational requirement: Option 1). An Associate of Arts Degree or equivalent coursework and must meet one of the following two job experience requirements: Three consecutive years of continuous, full-time service as a police officer, with the same police agency or three consecutive years of active military duty. Option 2). An Associate Degree of Science or equivalent coursework and meet one of the following two job experience requirements: three onsecutive years of continuous, full-time service, as a police officer, with the same agency or three consecutive years of active military duty. Option 3). An Associate of Applied Science Degree, only if the degree is in Law Enforcement/Criminal Justice and meet one of the following two job experience requirements: Three consecutive years of continuous, full-time service as a police officer, with the same agency, or three consecutive years of active military duty. Option 4). A Bachelor’s Degree (https://www. illinoisstatetrooper. om/requiremnents. html). Lastly, North Dakota Highway Patrol’s minimum educational requirements are: An Associate degree with two years of work-related experience or a Bachelor’s degree (http://nd. gov/n dhp/employment/qualifications. html). Upon review of each state police or state highway patrol website, the following requirements by state were revealed: presently, ten states require an Associate’s Degree or 60 hours of college credit (PA, TX, KY, MN, MO, OK, DE, CN, WI, LA). The remaining states require a high school diploma or equivalent.However, one state– Nevada, stipulates no educational requirement. Out of the 100 largest cities in the United States, only four police departments require a four-year degree (Jacksonville, FL, Arlington, TX. , St. Paul, MN, and Tulsa, OK). Upon looking at the 100 largest police departments in the United States by number of sworn officers (list provided by the Police Executive Research Forum), only 3 of the largest police departments require a four-year degree (New Jersey State Police, Illinois State Police, and Jacksonville Sheriff’s Office).After reviewing each of the 100 largest cities websites, it was determined that 67% of such departments require a police officers to have a high school diploma or equivalent; 6% require a high school diploma plus 12 hours college credit; 4% require between 30-40 hours of college credit, 19% require an Associate’s degree or 60 hours of college credit, with 4% requiring a four-year degree.Again after searching agency websites regarding career opportunities, the percentages were similar upon reviewing the largest 100 departments by number of sworn officers: 68% required a high school diploma or equivalent; 4% required a high school diploma or equivalent plus 12 hours of college credit; 4% required between 30-54 hours of college credits; 21% required an Associate’s degree of 60 hours of college credit, and 3% of the 100 largest police departments (by number of sworn officers) currently require a four-year degree.Once again, even the few that require the degree; the majority will waive the requirement, with certain stipulation—which will be discuss ed. To estimate whether or not the one-percent of police departments with degree requirements were actually large or small departments necessitated reviewing the LEMAS report (2003), concluding that Seventy-four percent (74%) of all local police departments served fewer than 10,000 residents, these agencies employed just 14% of all offices. About half of all officers served a jurisdiction with 100,000 or more residents.While departments serving the largest cities had thousands of officers on average, those serving fewer than 2,500 residents have an average of just four full-time employees, including three sworn officers. The Arguments: Pros and Cons of the College-Educated Police Officer The idea surrounding the purpose of college-educated officers has stemmed from two sources: the alleged importance of professionalism for the police force and to change officer attitudes (Shernock, 1992). Friedmann (2006) made an excellent point,When police officers try to do their job today without a degree, their already difficult task is made more difficult. However, chiefs who mandate the degree requirement should be aware that the transition period—where the police department does not already have a clear majority of officers with degrees—could be difficult. Police officers sometimes resist higher education requirements. Despite this resistance, police officers need higher education for the good of the profession† (p. 23). Chief of Police Hawkins (2006) reiterated his department’s four-year requirement in Burnsville, MN. ,Burnsville’s four-year degree requirement helps recruit big-picture thinkers who are creative, culturally aware, and technically sound in constitutional law, and who look for the best solution to the multitudes of challenges they encounter. An officer’s well-rounded background enhances his or her ability and desire to partner with community members, use the vast resources both the residents and business owners pos sess, and make them part of the problem-solving process. The synergy created between the community and the officers is the basis foundation of Burnsville’s community policing efforts. Friedman, 2006, p. 28). As the debate over the need for an educated police officers has demonstrated contradictory evidence concerning college educated police officers—meaning that although many studies are supportive that officers need a college education, there is also conflicting evidence. Baro and Burlingame (1999) disputed recommendations that officers need a baccalaureate degree to increase levels of police professionalism, stating that officers need no more than a high school diploma or equivalency.Sherman and McLeod (1979) speculated that higher education for officers may be irrelevant because the education officers receive in higher educational institutions is quite similar to training officers receive in police academies. Critics of higher educations believe the â€Å"college-e ducated officers are more likely to become frustrated with their work, with restrictions imposed by supervisors, and with limited opportunities for advancement† (Worden, 1990, p. 567). Hudzick (1978) found that officers with an education place less value on obedience to supervisors and are less satisfied with their careers.Other are concerned that â€Å"college-educated officers will quickly tire of the irregular hours, constant pressures, and relative low pay of policing† (Varricchio, 1988, p. 11). Whetstone (2000) acknowledged that, â€Å"hiring candidates with improved credentials also invites eventual problems such as greater job dissatisfaction and personnel turnover† (p. 247). Kakar (1998) further demonstrated that a college education might decrease officer’s quality of service because police work does not offer opportunities to stimulate the college-educated mind.Furthermore, because police performance measures differ in studies, no real consensus e xists on exactly how police performance should be defined and measured. Carter and Sapp (1990) indicated that regardless of degree requirements, 23% of police officers had obtained a four-year degree and 65% of police officers had at least one year of college. Peterson (2001) gave somewhat higher estimates, in that 30% of police officers sampled from ten medium-sized departments in the Midwest had four-year degrees.Mayo (2006) estimates between 25-30% of police officers have a four-year degree, which realistically nearly mirrors the percentage of U. S. population over age 25 who have obtained a bachelor’s degree. According to the US Census Bureau (2005) 28% of the US population over the age of 25 has obtained a bachelor’s degree, which is an all-time high. Common sense dictates that those percentages of police officers with four-year degrees are representative of the education levels of the communities they serve, if we utilize such figures and that line of reasoning.H owever, the small number of departments requiring degrees necessitates attention to raise awareness to the fact that less than 100 police departments, including special jurisdiction police, state police, county and local police departments mandate degrees, and whether this will change in the future. Little information exists regarding the 1% of police departments that require the four-year degree. Mayo (2006) revealed several case studies of departments with four-year degrees regarding the question of the degree and its importance to the sites’ organizational success in the communities they serve.One of the departments that was highlighted, the Dover Police Department in N. J. , which is now the Toms River Police Department, has changed its language to relax its mandatory four-year requirement, the current ordinance: requires candidates to possess a bachelor’s degree from an accredited college or university or, the candidate must possess a minimum of 64 college credits combined with two (2) full years of military experience or full time work experience (http://www. rpolice. org/Recruitment. html). Other than a list of departments that require four-year degrees recently made available on-line by the Police Association for College Education, no other list is available to reveal the one-percent of police agencies that require the four-year degree. Unfortunately, many of the departments listed on that site that have a four-year degree requirement no longer have the requirement, but have relaxed it or waived it all together.After contacting all of the departments by email or phone, the following departments on PACE’s list no longer require a four-year degree: Vallejo, CA. ; Boulder, CO. ; Peach Tree, GA. ; Holden, MA. ; St. Cloud, MN. ; Eagan City, MN. ; Borough of Gettysburg, PA. ; Edinboro, PA. ; Appleton, WI. ; Flint, MI. ; Milford, MI. ; Montvale, NJ. ; University Park, TX; Whitefish Bay, WI; and Upper Moreland, NJ. The Chief of Police, Tho mas Nestle, III. , of Upper Moreland, NJ, responded via email that Upper Moreland only requires 60 hours of college credit.Nestel (2009) offered his opinion, via email, as to why the degree requirements was relaxed at his department, The applicant pool that is suited for this position frequently does not possess the educational pedigree you describe (a four-year degree). Law enforcement tends to draw military veterans and sons/daughters of existing officers. Neither group has a high rate of college graduates. Recruiting on college campuses has proven to be very unsuccessful. Policing doesn’t seem to be an appealing direction for the college graduate.In recent years, other departments (Memphis, TN, Plano, TX, Portland, OR) once known to have had a four-year degree requirement, further made national headlines regarding the choice to relax their respective educational requirement. Interestingly, many other police departments were found that were not included in the Police Associ ation for College Education’s (PACE) list regarding police departments that require four-year degrees as of 2006. A massive Internet search was undertaken to locate local police departments that currently require a four-year degree for new patrol officers.Additionally, numerous contacts via telephone to police chiefs and recruits were attempted to uncover additional police departments with four-year degree requirements. However, most of those attempts were unsuccessful for little knowledge exists as to whom the police departments requiring four-year degrees actually were in the U. S. Therefore, it was necessary to rely on departmental websites in attempts to discover who indeed mandated the baccalaureate degree requirement. Problematically, many departmental websites lacked clarity regarding educational requirements.Therefore, if relevant information could not be obtained via websites, many telephone contacts to police departments led to the discovery of 60 local police depar tments, including local police departments and county sheriff offices that require a four-year degree for police officers. However, there are several special jurisdiction police agencies that also require officers to hold a baccalaureate degree and will not waive educational requirements, including the Missouri Department of Conservation (law enforcement) and the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department.However, special jurisdiction police agency degree requirements are not the focus of this analysis. Sixty police agencies (local and county) were unearthed to indeed have the requirement–Illinois has the greatest number of police departments requiring a four-year degree, with eleven; New Jersey has seven; Ohio has eight; Pennsylvania has six; Michigan has 5; Texas has four; Wisconsin has 4; Colorado has 3; South Carolina has 2; Florida has 2; Minnesota has 2; Oregon, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, and Missouri each have one local police department that has a four-year degr ee requirement.Special jurisdiction police agencies aside, caution however, that of those 60 police departments, only 37 will not waive or relax their educational requirements for any exception. Therefore, there are 37 local police departments that will not waive their educational requirements on any grounds. Table 1 contains the 37 local departments that will not waive educational requirements. Population size, gathered from Sperling’s Best Places (www. bestplaces. net) follow to demonstrate the size of each city in which the respective department is located.Regarding county police departments, population size was not included. Table 1 Note: N=37. This may not be the complete list. However, no other such list is available. Simple computations reveal the Mean for the population size of local police departments with mandatory degree requirements is (X=61,911), with the Median (MD=31,891). Due to the reality that there are so few local police departments mandating degrees, it i s relevant to include examples of specific educational requirements for such departments regarding their policy regarding mandatory four-year degree education requirements in Table 2.Local Police Departments Requiring Four-Year Degrees, No Exceptions Police DepartmentLocationPopulation Size Arvada Police DepartmentCO104,838 Arlington Police DepartmentTX367,197 Bethel Park Police Department PA 31,891 Bloomfield Township Police Department MI 65,796 Canfield Police Department OH 7,061 Centerville Police Department OH 23,046 Cleveland Heights Police Department OH 47,097Deer Park Police Department TX 29,748 Burnsville Police Department MN 59,321 Eatontown Police Department NJ 14,022 Elgin Police Department IL 98,846 Gaston County Police Department NC Flint Township Police Department MI 32,753 Green Tree Borough Police Department PA 4,396 Lakewood Police DepartmentCO140,024 Leonia Police DepartmentNJ 8,799 Mahwah Police DepartmentNJ 24,560 Middleburg Heights Police DepartmentOH 15,237 Mt. Lebanon Police DepartmentPA 5,481 Multnomah County Sheriff’s DepartmentORNaperville Police DepartmentIL140,633 Norton Shores Police DepartmentMI 23,429 Novi Police DepartmentMI 52,621 Owasso Police DepartmentMI 15,388 Palatine Police DepartmentIL 66,596 Platteville Police DepartmentWI 9,748 Pueblo Police DepartmentCO103,730 Peters Township Police DepartmentPA 4,683 Richmond Heights Police DepartmentMO 9,228 Schaumburg Police DepartmentIL 73,890 Smithfield Police DepartmentRI 21,863 South Park Township Police DepartmentPA 14,647 Strongsville Police DepartmentOH 43,347 Sugar Land Police DepartmentTX 79,943 Tulsa Police DepartmentOK385,486 Wheaton Police Department IL 54,611Wilmette Police Department IL 26,737 Table 2 Examples of Educational Specification Per Department That Have Mandatory Four-year Degree Requirements PoliceEducational Requirement Specification Department Arvada PDâ€Å"Bachelor’s degree from an accredited college or university (final semester seniors are eligible). This requirement will not be waived for any reason† (http://arvadapd. org/join-our-team/requirements/. html). Arlington PDâ€Å"Possess a Bachelor’s degree from an accredited college or university. Education is not waived for prior military service or prior experience† http://www. rlingtonpd. org/index. asp? nextpg=recruiting/require. asp). Centerville PDâ€Å"Bachelor’s Degree Required† (http://ci. centerville. oh. us/index. php? option=com). Deer Park PDâ€Å"Bachelor’s degree by hire date† (http://www. ci. deer-park. tx. us/department/index. php? fDD=15-0 Eatontown PDâ€Å"Effective September 1, 2008, applicant must have a bachelor’s degree, signifying completion of the undergraduate curriculum and graduation from an accredited college or university† (http://www. nj. com/police/careers. html).Lakewood PDâ€Å"Bachelor’s degree in any discipline—no exceptions† (http://www. ci. lakewo od. co. us/index. cfmp). Tulsa PDâ€Å"Applicants must have completed a Bachelor’s degree with a C+ average or better at an accredited college. No military hours or credits are acceptable unless they are received from or converted through an accredited college† (http:/www. tulsapd. ord/recruiting/requirements. htm Note. This is not an exhaustive list. Examples of Specific Educational Requirements Per Departments Regarding Mandatory Four-Year Degree Education Requirement, With Waiver ExceptionsAs stated previously, only 37 local police departments require a four-year degree with no exceptions allowed. However, 23 other local police departments require a four-year degree, but will waive the requirements with certain exceptions, as do the Illinois State Police and the New Jersey State Police. Therefore, those 23 departments with similar wording or language embedded in their respective specific job requirements or career opportunities containing ‘require a four-year degree, but will relax requirements,’ will be included in departments that require four-year degrees.The Toms River Police Department provides a good example of ‘waiver exceptions,’ The current ordinance requires candidates to possess a bachelor’s degree from an accredited college or university or the candidate must possess a minimum of 64 college credits combined with two (2) full years of military experience or full-time regular police experience† (http://www. trpolice. org/Recruitment. html). Other specific examples of police department requirements with waivers include: Charleston Police Department, Bachelor’s degree and above or Associate degree with four years of prior law enforcement experience or military experience† (http:www. charlestoncity. info/dept/content. aspx? nid=817&cid=9931). Coral Springs Police Department’s requirements are similar, â€Å"Applicant must possess: A Bachelor’s degree from an accredited c ollege or (4) years law enforcement experience and at least 60 credits from an accredited college, or (4) years military experience and at least 60 credits from an accredited college† (http://www. theblueline. com/feature/Flcoralsprings. html). Other examples include: 1.Highland Park Police Department â€Å"Bachelor’s degree from an accredited college or university—consideration may be given for applicants who possess at least 60 credit hours† (http://www. hptxorg/index. aspx? page=233). 2. Jacksonville Sheriff’s Office â€Å"Must possess a Bachelor’s degree from an accredited college or possess an accredited Associate’s degree or equivalent (60 semester hours/90 quarter hours) with four (4) years prior active military or law enforcement experience or possess 90 semester/135 quarter hours with two (2) years prior active military or law enforcement experience† http:www. coj. net/Departments/Sheriffs+Office/About+ the+JSO/default. htm). 3. Livonia Police Department â€Å"Have been awarded an Associate Degree in Law Enforcement or Public Administration or a Bachelor Degree in any non-Criminal Justice discipline† (http://www. ci. livonia. mi. us/default. asp? area2=departments%2Fcivil+service) 4. Osh Kosh Police Department â€Å"Associate degree—In Criminal Justice/Police Science; Bachelor degree—in any field† (https://wilenet. org/html/employment/showopportunities. jsp). 5. Tinley Park Police Department All applicants must have completed 2 years satisfactory experience as a certified sworn law enforcement officer in the state of Illinois or posses an Associates Degree with at least a C average (or its equivalent) with an emphasis in criminal justice, or possess 60 college credit hours with at least a C average (or its equivalent) with an emphasis in criminal justice, or possess a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree from a four year college or university† (http:www. tinleyparkpolice. org/police. html).Haddon Township Police department is another that was included in the list of police departments that require a four-year degree, however, their exception has somewhat different specifications: â€Å"Applicants must make a pre-employment agreement to achieve a Baccalaureate Degree within eight years from the time of employment. † (http://www. haddontwppolice. com/). Table 3 includes Police Departments that require four-year degrees, with exceptions or waiver conditions. Table 3 Police Departments that Have Four-Year Degree Requirements, With ExceptionsPoliceLocation Departments Bath Police Department OH Bainbridge Township Police Department OH Charleston Police Department SC Cherry Hill Police Department NJ Coral Springs Police Department FL Haddon Township Police Department NJ Highland Park Police Department TX Hinsdale Police Department IL Jacksonville Sheriff’s Office FL Langlade County Sheriff’s Department WI Livonia Poli ce Department MI Kettering Police Department OH Montgomery Township Police Department NJ Osh Kosh Police Department WIPlano Police Department TX Richland County Sheriff’s Office SC River Forest Police Department IL Shaler Police Department PA St. Paul Police Department MN Tinley Park Police Department IL Toms River Police Department NJ (Formerly Dover PD) Vernon Hills Police Department IL Willowbrook Police Department IL Note. N=23. Methodology Regarding the 1% of local police departments that require a four-year degree at the time of hire, it was noted previously that little information exists about the location of such departments.Intensive Internet searches, email and telephone contacts with multitudes of police recruiters and chiefs yielded 60 departments with four-year degree requirements, although only 37 of such departments had mandatory educational requirements resulting in no educational waivers. As it was unclear which department had mandatory requirements at the ou tset, 45 questionnaires were mailed to police chiefs at departments, which were believed to have mandatory requirements.Of those 45 questionnaires mailed, 40 were completed and returned–which was an excellent overall response rate of nearly 89%. Four of those surveys revealed that the departments surveyed did not require the four-year degree requirement; therefore, the results were not utilized. Thirty-six (36) returned questionnaires remained, revealing both important and relevant information about departments with mandatory requirements and were the subjects for this study. Thirty-seven (37) departments overall were found with mandatory requirements.Items on the questionnaires pertained to a wide range of subjects including the year in which such departments implemented their degree requirement; number of sworn officers; the chief’s education level; mean starting salaries for police officers; whether or not police chiefs had a preference in degree discipline; whether the chiefs preferred their officers had degrees that were vocational or theoretical in nature; whether chiefs preferred bachelor or arts degrees over bachelor of science degree; if officers who were hired before the degree requirement was established were required to complete respective degrees; whether they believed the degree requirement would be altered in the future; if applicant pool had increased, decreased or remained the same since the establishment of the degree requirement; the requirement’s impact on minority recruiting, and whether police chiefs believed officers with a college degree perform better than officers without a college degree.Additionally, two questions qualitatively regarding why police chiefs believed their respective departments had the mandatory requirement and why police chiefs believe only 1% of other departments have followed suit in mandating the requirement. Although glaring limitations to this analysis stem from the fact the little informati on exists regarding the reality of those one-percent of police departments that mandate a four-year degree, this is an exploratory step enabling further exploration into this important issue. Ultimately, the future professionalism of the policing field does hinge on raising degree requirements across police departments in America. Although only 36 police chiefs were surveyed, their information speaks volumes as to the need for other departments to follow their lead.As one chief eloquently stated: It is evident that society has become more complex. Problem solving skills along with communication skills are even more important today for police officers. A college education gives a foundation and more importantly legitimizes police work as a profession The instrument utilized has not proven reliable. However, this began a process of raising issues regarding the importance and the future of the college-degreed officer. At the outset, many officers are obtaining four-year degrees regardl ess of whether the degree is required or not. Results Information regarding the analysis of data is organized according to the research questions.For each question, the results are followed by an explanation and discussion of the findings. Only descriptive statistics were utilized, as there was no need for making inferences in this analysis. Eleven research questions were addressed in attempts to determine how departments that require four-year degrees are different from departments that have the requirement, and will waive it, or do not have such requirements. Descriptive data from the surveys revealed that the first department implemented their mandatory degree requirement in 1963. One chief responded, Our degree requirement was implemented in 1990. We changed the entry-level minimum educational requirement from a high chool diploma to a bachelor’s degree over the course of seven years. Research indicates police agencies should require a four-year degree. Table 4 describes the year departments implemented their mandatory degree requirement, with a range from 1963-2008. Table 4 Frequencies and Percentages for the Year Degree Requirements were Implemented Year Degree Requirement Implemented f% 1963 12. 8 1969 38. 3 1975 25. 6 1976 12. 8 1981 12. 8 1984 12. 8 1986 38. 3 1987 12. 8 1990 4 11. 1 1991 12. 8 1992 1 2. 8 1993 12. 8 994 12. 8 1995 12. 8 1996 12. 8 1997 25. 6 1998 38. 3 2000 12. 8 2005 12. 8 2006 1 2. 8 2008 12. 8 Note. N=36 It was apparent from the literature that only three of the largest police departments (by sworn officer) required a four-year degree. Tulsa Police Department is the largest department in this study, with 844 sworn officers. However, Tulsa is not the norm regarding departments with degree requirements and number of sworn officers, as results will show that most police departments with degree requirements have less than 100 sworn officers.However, of the 36 respondents in this particular study, the range of number of sworn of ficers was 15 at the smallest department to 844 sworn officers at the largest department included. The mean number of sworn officers was 127. 20 (SD=171. 46, MD=70). Table 5 illustrates the frequencies and percentages of sworn officers in departments with mandatory degree requirements, demonstrating that most of the departments with the requirement have fewer than 100 sworn officers; 16 departments have fewer than 50 sworn officers. Table 5 Frequencies and Percentages of Number of Sworn Officers in Departments with Mandatory Degree Requirements Number of Sworn Officers f % 1512. 8 2025. 6 2112. 8 212. 8 2512. 8 2712. 8 2912. 8 3112. 8 3412. 8 3725. 6 4012. 8 4312. 8 4612. 8 4812. 8 5412. 8 7025. 6 7212. 8 7412. 8 7512. 8 9812. 8 10312. 8 11225. 6 13712. 8 16012. 8 16512. 8 18912. 8 20012. 8 20512. 8 28212. 8 34012. 8 61512. 8 84412. 8 Note. N=36. Regarding the police chief’s level of education, Table 6 contains the frequencies and percentages associated with levels of educati on broken down into five categories: Associate’s Degree, Bachelor’s Degree; One Master’s Degree; Multiple (2) Master’s Degree’s, and Doctorate Degree. One of the departments where the chief had an Associates degree, the mandatory requirement was implemented in 1981.Furthermore, in all 36 departments surveyed, no officer was on the force without a degree before the educational mandate has implemented was required to obtain a four-year degree. In essence, the grandfather clause was utilized. The same was true with the chief’s who did not meet the degree requirement, as they were not required to meet new degree requirements. Table 6 Police Chief’s Level of Education in Departments with Mandatory Four-Year Degree Requirements Degree Type Earnedf% Associate’s Degree25. 6 Bachelor’s Degree 10 27. 8 One Master’s Degree 22 61. 1 Two Master’s Degrees12. 8 Doctorate Degree12. 8 Note.N=36 Regarding the mean starting s alaries for the departments that require a four-year degree, the mean starting salaries for police officers in police departments with four-year degree requirements are higher than salaries for police officers in departments without four-year degree requirements. City data was additionally gathered (www. bestplaces. net) regarding median household income for the 37 original locations of departments with mandatory degree requirements. The median household income for city residents pertaining to this sample was $61,330. According to the U. S. Census Bureau (2008) the median household income reached $50,233 in 2007.Therefore, it was likely that mean starting salaries for police officers in these locations would also be higher. According to one police chief surveyed: It’s all about tradition, size of city and location. The Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics On-line (2006) states that the mean starting salary for police officers ranging from populations from 10,000 to over 1,000,000 was $38,569. As shown in Table 7, the mean starting salaries for police officers in police departments with mandatory four-year degree requirements was quite higher. A striking example of this is illustrated in one chief’s words, Thirty-nine percent of our residents over the age of 25 have an advanced collegiate degree.Our population is 27,000. Our residents are university professors, attorneys, medical doctors, CEO’s. Our village is considered upper class economically and home values are quite high. Many well-known people live here. Our police officers are comfortable inter-acting in our residents’ homes, even on the most sensitive matters. We don’t feel inferior. We belong here. Our residents value us. The four-year degree requirement helps us significantly in recruiting. We provide an average of more than 100 hours of training annually to our officers. Our ‘brand’ is that we are the ‘education and training’ departmen t. This has been very effective for us. Table 7Means and Other Statistics Concerning Salaries for Police Officers in Departments With Mandatory Four-Year Degree Requirements Starting Salary Mean $47,222 Median $46,786 Mode $40,000 SD $6,024 Minimum $34,901 Maximum $58,931 Note. N=36. Only two of the departments surveyed required that officer possess a four-year degree in Criminal Justice or Law Enforcement. It is common that police departments requiring Associate’s degrees are specifically looking for their police candidates to have an Associate’s degree in Criminal Justice or a closely related field. However, upon surveying police chiefs in departments with mandatory four-year degree requirements, only seven or 19. 4% preferred criminal justice or closely related degrees. Seventy-five ercent (75%) of police chiefs in this study believed that a four-year degree in any discipline was acceptable. Two police chiefs in this sample were uncertain as to whether they preferre d a criminal justice degree to a degree in any other discipline. When asked whether the police chiefs preferred a practical/vocational degree or a degree that was theoretical/academic in nature, or if they had no preference, the majority (63. 9%) of chiefs had no preference–either orientation was acceptable, stating that was precisely the four-year degree in itself that mattered. Table 8 illustrates the frequencies and percentages of practical versus theoretical orientations. Table 8Frequencies and Percentages of Degree Orientation Preference: Practical v. Theoretical Degree Orientation Preferencef% Prefer practical/vocational orientation822. 2 Prefer theoretical/academic orientation411. 1 No preference, either acceptable 2363. 9 Uncertain 1 2. 8 Note. N=36. The results of this study lend little support either way to Bostrom’s (2005) finding. Although several police chiefs could break down the percentage of their officers who had a Bachelor of Arts degree or Bachelor o f Science degree, only one respondent believed that officers with a Bachelor of Science perform better than officers with a Bachelor of Arts degree.Seventy-five (75%) or 27 police chiefs believed there is no difference in work habits or performance regarding whether an officer has a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree. The remaining respondents (25%) were uncertain as to whether there was a true difference among the types of degree. Whatever the case, a common theme emerged, We believe the quality of our officers and the services provided are enhanced by a better-educated workforce. Policing is an extremely complex profession, requiring individuals who can apply abstract concepts within difficult situations. We can also assign more complex duties to our officers. Table 9 reviews the police chief’s opinions regarding the future of the degree requirement, and whether they believed it would be altered in the future.It was clearly apparent that in these departments, th e degree requirement is a fixed quality. Table 9 Chiefs’ Opinions Regarding the Future of Their Degree Requirement Future Expectations f% Expect to retain requirement Indefinitely3391. 7 Expect requirement to be altered In future 2 5. 6 Uncertain 1 2. 8 Note. N=36. We hope to keep our degree requirement forever. With the high percentage of college graduates in today’s society, I don’t believe this requirement is unreasonable. It’s our goal to continue to pursue the ‘most qualified’ applicants for our police department. Many police departments are hesitant to adopt a mandatory educational requirement due to fears that applicant pools will dwindle if requirement is enforced.According to this sample, nearly 64% of police chiefs reported that their respective applicant pools have indeed decreased due to their educational mandate. However, others felt different. The four-year degree requirement has served us well. We typically receive about 70 app licants for every 1-3 openings we try to fill. All of which have the four-year degree and either enrollment or completion of the police academy. Another responded in a way to overcome the issue of lower applicant pools, cautioning a reason why this will not happen at large, Yes, the requirement decreases this applicant pool. In my opinion, for a department to have an educational requirement such as ours, a strong recruitment effort is necessary.We recruit over 15 northern Ohio colleges that have law enforcement majors programs to get an adequate number of participants to take our civil service tests. That is an expensive endeavor, one that most cities won’t make. † Table 10 reviews police chief’s opinions regarding application pools and their particular educational requirement. Table 10 Stability of Application Pools in Police Departments with Mandatory Four-Year Degree Requirement Level of Police Applicants f% Application pool has increased With degree requireme nt25. 6 Application pool has decreased With degree requirement 23 63. 9 Application pool has stayed the same 10 27. 8 Uncertain 12. 8 Note. N=36.One of the predominant reasons offered as to why more police departments do not have a mandatory degree requirement is that enforcing such a mandate would have a negative impact on recruiting. One chief replied, it’s ‘politically correct’ to lower education standards to avoid the wrath of the special interest-minority groups who wish to lower educational standards to increase the minority population in the applicant pool. Table 11 describes frequencies and percentages of police chiefs’ opinions regarding their requirement’s impact on minority recruiting. Interestingly, only 11% of respondents believed the requirement had a positive impact on recruiting minorities.Two interesting responses emerged regarding the process of calming the regarded negative impact on recruiting: If I can keep the requirement a few more years, we will have a majority of officers with degrees and there will be less internal pressure to lower standards. As long as we hire a significant percentage of minorities, there will be less claims of adverse impact—nine are female, five are Hispanic. We will evolve to the point that candidates for promotion with degrees are more likely to get the appointment. Lack of applicant pool and minorities. While this is true, it can be overcome. We have fewer applicants, but they are higher quality. Our recruitment methods continually change to reach our target audience. We work with many minority groups to reach out to minority populations. One respondent was adamant regarding this issue,The minority community that believes there would be an ‘adverse impact. ’ There isn’t. Table 11 Requirements Impact on Recruiting Minorities Level of Impact f % Requirement has had a positive Impact on recruitment of Minorities411. 1 Requirement has had a negative impac t on recruitment of minorities1027. 8 Requirement has had no impact on recruitment of minorities1130. 6 Uncertain 1130. 6 Note. N=36. Another important issue addressed concerns that highly relevant debate: Does a college degree make for a better police officer? The answer to that question among the 36 police chiefs was not unanimous, but the majority (80. 6%) indeed believed that officers with a degree perform better.In efforts to once again address this century-old debate, Table 12 describes the realities of police chiefs’ opinions on this theme. Table 12 Do Officers with a College Degree Perform Better? Police Chief’s Opinions f% Yes, officers with a degree perform better2980. 6 No, officers with a degree do not perform better 411. 1 Uncertain 3 8. 3 Note. N=36. In an attempt to dig deeper into the above issues and subjects, a qualitative approach was utilized to uncover themes predominant to this analysis. Although important descriptive information has been revealed , few attempts have been taken to qualitatively explore the two important issues relevant here—opinions of police chiefs from that one-percent of police departments with mandatory degree requirements.Herein, two final questions needed exploration: Why do their departments actually have their mandatory degree requirement and why they believe so few departments actually require the degree? After careful thought and consideration, they shared their opinions and beliefs—those of which should be held in high regard, as they are the select few who have shown to be pioneers in their concrete efforts to bring about professionalism to the policing field. Police Chief’s Explanations as to Why Their Respective Departments Have the Four-Year Degree Requirement Aside from stern recommendations encouraging police administrators and community leaders to adopt educational standards,Our department adopted the requirement based Carter, Sapp and Stephens findings and the recommend ations of the 1967 Presidential Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals that said that a four-year degree should be required by all law enforcement by 1981 six themes emerged from analyzing the data regarding why these departments actually have the degree requirement. 1. It is our tradition and part of our institutional, organizational and community culture and we are valued. It’s our tradition. We are the only agency in the state that still requires a four-year degree. We have always required this and I believe we hire exemplary people with more maturity and a strong sense of direction than those without the degree. It’s really a huge part of our culture. We hope to keep our four-year educational degree requirement forever.With the high percentage of college graduates in today’s society, I don’t believe this requirement is unreasonable. It’s our goal to continue to pursue the ‘most qualified’ applicants for our dep artment One of the best things I did 17 years ago was to convince the governing body to pass the four-year degree requirement. Since then the department has hired 140 of our 160 officers (bright, educated and professional). After becoming Chief in 1992, I felt strongly that this would have a very positive impact on the department and it has. Very well-respected, very few discipline problems or concerns. 2. The degree carries with it a level of expertise, knowledge and perseverance that represent us in our communities well.The requirement for a bachelor’s degree generally assures that an applicant can read and write; has been exposed to complex written materials requiring some level of analysis; has developed some level of critical thinking and communication skills, and has achieved at least some measurable relatively long-term goal in their lifetime. A bachelor’s degree limits the number of applicants who, most probably, would not be selected anyway. It also increases the quality of the applicant pool (education-level wise), which makes for a better police officer and increases the minimum age of the applicants, making them more experienced in life. It also shows that you have people at the very least, had the ‘stick-to-it-ivness’ to persevere through four years of college. It also eliminates the need for education reimbursement for officers pursuing bachelor’s degrees. We believe that it provides us with a more mature, well-rounded and worldly candidate who has more experience interacting with many different people from all walks of life† 3. Education levels of the police force should mirror the education level of the communities they serve. To reflect the demographics of the community we serve. According to the Census, Wilmette has one of the highest education levels in America. We want to be representative of those we serve in race, gender, education level and foreign language. This is also a successful strategy for m aintaining high salaries and benefits. We wanted to ensure our police officers’ education level closely mirrored the education level and demographics of our community. Over 70% of adult residents in our community have a bachelor’s degree. 4.A belief in excellence and quality—the degree makes a difference in performance. The department instituted this educational requirement in 1993 due to the belief that educated officers will be better decision makers and have better communication skills, both in oral and written form Department belief of excellence—higher quality of service to community, being leaders in profession Quality candidate, self-thinking and less supervision. Enhanced knowledge, skills and abilities as well as communications skills (oral and written); critical thinking and analytical skills; broader viewpoints; more tolerant; foundation of criminal justice concepts; self-discipline; and time management.We believe that a better educated work-fo rce is necessary in dealing with the public and are higher educated. We also believe that education enhances communication skills which are necessary in police work. A higher educated person is a more rounded individual, which leads to a better police officer To have a better qualified work force 5. A belief that the mandatory degree promotes professionalism both in their communities and for the entire police field. We believe that this should be the standard if we are to continue to develop and promote a professional police organization Academics have pushed our department to a new level of professionalism and innovationTo significantly improve the quality of police services via intelligent, articulate and professional personnel To establish professional standards at entry-level We are located in a city with a university with a strong criminal justice program. We have several members of our police and fire commission who are affiliated with the university. The four-year degree requ irement enhances our professionalism. 6. Officers with a college degree are more mature and have stronger goal- reaching abilities. I feel that a person demonstrates his/her desire to be a police officer by completing four year of study in criminal justice. They prove not only a strong desire to become a police officer, but possess the ability to set a goal and achieve it.It also demonstrates that ability to learn. That is why a four-year bachelors degree in criminal justice, criminology or law enforcement exists. It is specific to those who set a goal for law enforcement and achieve it. Increases odds of mature/smart candidate. Maturity, dedication, experience and age of applicants are more suitable for employment. Police Chief’s Explanations as to Why They Believe So Few Departments in the U. S. Actually Require a Four-Year Degree Only three out of the 36 police chiefs surveyed stated that they were not satisfied with their department’s educational policy. However, o ver 90% were satisfied with their departmental policies requiring college degrees.Aside from the following two realities many police leaders encounter–one being that the college degree is not mandated as a requirement by most licensing boards, and it may be prevented because of civil service regulations–five themes emerged regarding police chiefs explanations as to why they believe so few departments actually require degrees: 1. It’s all about money and over-all job satisfaction that one perceives a college-degree should bring. We have issues retaining officers and we frequently lose them to higher paying positions outside the field of policing. University instructors, technical school instructors, social work have all been attractive to our officers.Governments are reluctant to pay the higher wages for an applicant with a degree. Most agencies cannot pay adequate salaries for advanced degrees. Higher degreed people are not satisfied being a police officer. Mone y. Most departments cannot afford to start our a patrol officer at what a college graduate could make It certainly can hurt the applicant pool, depending on the salary Possibly they believe their pay-rates are not high enough to attract college graduates. Lack of pay for many smaller agencies 2. The degree requirement decreases applicant pools. Although some did not agree, the majority of police chiefs surveyed stated their department’s mandatory degree equirement has reduced applicant pools. It reduces the pool of potential applicants at a time when suitable applicants are hard to find. There remains a high percentage of law enforcement executives and government officials who believe a four-year degree is not a necessity in preparing an individual for a law enforcement career. Because of the difficulty in finding a sufficient number of qualified candidates Reduction in applicant pool is significant 3. The chiefs in this studied strongly valued education, however education ov erall is under-valued in policing. Most chiefs say they value education, but stop short of making it a requirement. Education is under-valued in policing.The four-year degree requirement make recruiting tougher and it creates challenges for retaining personnel. † I still believe that the majority of police leaders are, as a law-enforcement culture, anti-education for police officers 4. Police leaders who have not attained a college degree may not find one necessary. Therefore, this presents itself as a great challenge, one of increasing overall education standards. Administrators may not believe a college degree is necessary, especially if they have not earned one

Monday, July 29, 2019

Developing an integrated Marketing Mix Plan for a new brand (TEA) Research Paper

Developing an integrated Marketing Mix Plan for a new brand (TEA) - Research Paper Example The firms fail to address the competitive forces by developing their marketing policies will minimize the competitors (William 56). The marketing policies adopted by the organizational leaders, they direct their firms towards gaining the competitive advantage in the value added tea industry are discussed in the research. Data is collected through interviews with founders of nine firms using an interview guide and use records at the UK Tea. The results produced that brand structure, position advertising, product discrimination, cost control, and customer center were the most important policies approved by the organization. Opening up new markets abroad, fair trade, ecological sustainability, and closer delivery were acknowledged as imperative policies that are distinguished compact from contenders and located them among the market influential. It was also discovered that the deliberate resolutions could be endorsed to vision of the leaders, menace taking, their eagerness and assurance . Identifying marketing policies depending on the firm’s competence and modernization, and is found fundamental for the cost added tea export industries to attain production realization as well as to make significant involvement to the United Kingdom market. Introduction The Tea Processing market research reports on that provides the key industry with the analysis and market statistics, measures the market size, analyzes the current and future industry trends and identifies to the industries the share for the largest markets. The IBIS World publishes the largest collection of the economic report so that an industry can have a supply chain, economic drivers and key buyers and sufficient markets for their products. Tea is distinctly the British beverage, and more than 60 billion mugs of tea are taken annually in the United Kingdom only. The Britons are noted as the world tea drinkers per each capita, it has over 1,200 diverse types of tea sold all over the country. Viewing it f rom the economic depression and dilapidated customer expenditure, the Tea processing industry has remained resilient, due to its staple and cheap nature. The majority of the of the tea that is consumed in the United Kingdom, is the black tea type, it is primarily made from a blend of East African and South Asian tea leaves. There is a low amount of tea that is grown in the United Kingdom; the industry is exposed to the volatilities including global sourcing, for example, weather, crop diseases, political unrests and other external factors (Allen 42). The consumption of tea mostly ranges at 88% at the household purchasing. The South East part has the highest proportion of tea drinkers at 94%. According to the geographical spread of the tea manufacturing industries follow the trends of population development and the disposable capita income. Considering the low cultivation of tea in the U.K, and the large multinational companies such as Tetley and Unilever, they occupy the dispensatio n, amalgamation, covering and distribution of tea, and they are located close to their major customers (Data monitor 78). The wholesale bypass keeps the industry on its toes, through the IBIS World’s coffee, tea, and spices. The wholesaling market investigation, report provides the latest industry statistics and trends, making it possible for consumers to recognize the products and customers during the revenue augmentation and effectiveness. The manufacturing statement identifies the principal corporation and offers premeditated manufacturing analysis for the key aspects that manipulate the market at large (Mersey 34). The Coffee, Tea and Spices industries has had a bitter and marvelous run, even

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Brownfield and Redevelopment in China Research Paper

Brownfield and Redevelopment in China - Research Paper Example Environmental Protection Agency). It is further defined as† a parcel of land contaminated by one or more hazardous substances, but has potential to be reused once it is cleaned up† (China Development Gateway, 14 January 2011) . In the past several years, hundreds of polluting enterprises have been relocated away from city centers in Beijing, Shenyang, Guangzhou and other large Chinese cities. As a result, a large number of abandoned industrial brownfield sites can potentially be "recycled" for contemporary urban use, appropriate to the safe levels achieved after the clean-up. These could be anywhere from abandoned factories or manufacturing plants, factories or gas stations where substances were once used. The Brownfield become an obstacle for city expansion. Aside from this, Brownfield causes environmental risks due to possible pollutants that may still be present, yet redevelopment of these sites will contribute to urban development, create jobs, and develops green spac es and working land. Seeing the importance of these properties for development, China had to ask the World Bank for assistance in developing a sustainable program of development for these areas. As an insight, the history of the problem will be presented, the types of hazardous elements and contaminants found in abandoned areas will be categorized, the actions taken by the government is shown, and the recommended solutions formulated by World Bank is presented. Brownfields started in the Great Leap Forward era of 1950s wherein many of the state-owned factories were constructed within the city perimeter. (Zhang Xian, January 22. 2011) Reports said that these factories used antiquated equipments and had improper management and inadequate environmental services. As such, there was much pollution in the area, and in some instances pollution was 100 times higher than regulations permit. Report said that some underground organic pollutants have developed into non-aqueous phase liquids, wh ich, if not dissolved in water, can be a source of new pollutants. It is also feared that contaminants can transfer in the underground water, thus leading to a widespread distribution of poison. Four types of contaminants were found in the Industrial brownfield areas, and these are: Heavy contaminated sites. These come from steel, iron and smelting plants, ore tailings . Heavy metal contaminated sites. Typical contaminants are arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, and chrome. Persistent Organic Pollutant (POP) contaminated sites. China produces, and widely uses, pesticides such as DDT, HCB, Chlordane and Mirex. Although certain pesticides haven’t been used for many years, some remain in the soil. New pesticide-contaminated sites continue to be discovered in China, in addition to other types of POP contaminated sites, such as PCB capacitor dismantling and burial sites. Organic contaminated sites such as petrochemical, coking etc. Substances include organic solvents, benzene and hyd rocarbons, often mixed with other contaminants such as heavy metals. Electronic waste sites. Incorrect disposal of electronic waste can affect human health. The main contaminants are heavy metals and POPs (bromination flame retardants and dioxin). Source: Xie, Jian and Li Fasheng, 2011 In the past, there was little attention given to Brownfield areas and its harmful effects because of

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Multiple Topics to Choose Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Multiple Topics to Choose - Essay Example In the story, she happened to host the Earl of Beresford, a passenger from Canada, who got caught in her beauty to the extent, that he proposed her. Despite being an average girl with nothing materialistic to take pride in, she would refuse the proposal of any lad accoutered with utmost richness and wealth just like a princess, though she had completely different and unique reasons for doing so. â€Å"No princess of the blood could have been more stalely, self-possessed and politely determined to keep one at a distance† (Stowe 123). Although she was a house girl and did not have interaction with strangers in her unmarried life, yet she was brave and bold enough to have argument with a stranger like the Earl of Beresford. She refused to marry the Earl of Beresford because she could not feel attracted to all the fantasies he attempted to make her realize being his wife. Her priorities in life were far from materialism. She believed in succeeding through struggle. She would not t ake success for granted. She was determined and consistent. That was why, she had complete confidence in George. Mary was portrayed by Stowe as a character that had no materialistic proof to have faith in George but her own confidence and determination. Moved by her encouragement and confidence in him, George struggled and ultimately became a minister. All credit went to her. She married him. Conversion of an ordinary man into an American Minister is indeed, an achievement. This tells how important role women play in building an educated, learned and civilized society. Harriet Beecher Stowe has portrayed woman as having equipped with extreme courage, bravery, boldness and determination that contrasts with her intrinsic beauty and delicacy. The fundamental cause of George’s success was Mary. This tells that a woman keeps all the potential to cause a big change in the society remaining within the premises