Saturday, August 31, 2019

Soap Opera – Opiate of the Masses

A soap opera, every now and then called â€Å"soap† for short, is an ongoing, episodic work of dramatic fiction presented in serial format on radio or as television programming. The name soap opera came from the original dramatic serials broadcast on radio that had soap manufacturers, such as Procter & Gamble, Colgate-Palmolive and Lever Brothers, as sponsors and producers. These early radio series were broadcast in weekday daytime slots, when most listeners would be housewives; so the shows were aimed at and consumed by a predominantly female audience.An important element that defines soap opera is the open-ended nature of the narrative, with stories across several episodes. The defining feature that makes a television program a soap opera, according to Albert Moran, is â€Å"that form of television that works with a continuous open narrative. Each episode ends with a promise that the storyline is to be continued in another episode†. Soap opera stories run at the same time intersect and lead into further developments.An individual episode of a soap opera will generally switch between several different simultaneous story threads that may at times interconnect and affect one another or may run entirely independent of each other. Each episode may feature some of the show's current storylines but not always all of them. Especially in daytime serials and those that are screened each weekday, there is some rotation of both storyline and actors so any given storyline or actor will appear in some but usually not all of a week's worth of episodes.Soap operas seldom bring all the current storylines to a conclusion at the same time. When one storyline ends there are several other story threads at differing stages of development. Soap opera episodes typically end on some sort of cliffhanger, and the Season Finale ends in the same way, only to be resolved when the show returns for the start of a new yearly broadcast. Evening soap operas and those that screen at a rate of one episode per week are more likely to feature the entire cast in each episode, and to represent all current storylines in each episode.Evening soap operas and serials that run for only part of the year tend to bring things to a dramatic end-of-season cliffhanger. In 1976, Time magazine described American daytime television as â€Å"TV's richest market,† noting the loyalty of the soap opera fan base and the expansion of several half-hour series to a full hour in order to maximize ad revenues. The article explained that at that time, many prime time series lost money, while daytime serials earned profits several times more than their production costs. History of Foreign Soap OperaThe term â€Å"soap opera† was coined by the American press in the 1930s to denote the extraordinarily popular genre of successive domestic radio dramas. 2 The â€Å"soap† in soap opera alluded to their sponsorship by manufacturers of household cleaning products; while â₠¬Å"opera† suggested an ironic inappropriateness between the domestic narrative concerns of the daytime serial and the most elevated of dramatic forms. In the United States, the term continues to be applied primarily to the approximately fifty hours each week of daytime serial television drama broadcast by ABC, NBC, and CBS, but the meanings of the term, both in the U.  S. and elsewhere, exceed this generic designation. Long before the days of television, radio dramas ruled the airwaves.The radio programs were commercially sponsored by the manufacturers of household cleaning products – the use of the word â€Å"soap† in soap opera. The term â€Å"opera† refers to any form of elaborate dramatic entertainment, not necessarily one set to music. By 1940, about 90% of all sponsored daytime radio programming fell into the soap opera type. Even today, soap operas remain the most continuing and effective form of broadcast advertising vehicle.The advertising indus try publication Advertising Age named â€Å"the birth of the daytime soap opera† as the 29th most important milestone in the history of advertising. The first so-called television soap opera debuted way back in 1946. Faraway Hill considered by television historians to be the first network soap opera. It took three more years before the soaps found a home in the daytime hours. In 1949, These Are My Children debuted on NBC. The 15-minute show aired live and was the first continuing daytime drama. 4 On June 30th, 1952, soap giant Procter & Gamble introduced The Guiding Light on the CBS network.The soap opera had aired on radio since 1937. 5 Now minus the â€Å"The† from its title, Guiding Light is the longest running serial program which that some of these children debuted in the interview on NBC for the television history. Between 1940 and 1970, soap operas enjoyed a large and stable viewing audience. The core viewers of the soap opera were what advertisers came to call â€Å"housewives,† a term used to describe married women who remained home to take care of children. Foreign soap operas surged in popularity in the 1970s due, in part, to heavily-publicized romances, such as Luke and Laura's wedding on ABC's General Hospital.The viewers tuned into the Spencers' wedding, making it the most-watched show in the history of daytime television. But by the time the 1980s started to wind down, television ratings for soap operas started to decline. Gone were the days when women were supposedly duty-bound to remain home and take care of the house and kids; it was becoming necessary in many households to have two sources of income. In 1976, Time magazine described American daytime television as â€Å"TV's richest market,† noting the loyalty of the soap opera fan base and the expansion of several half-hour series to a full hour in order to maximize ad revenues.The article explained that at that time, many prime time series lost money, while dayti me serials earned profits several times more than their production costs. The issue's cover notably featured its first daytime soap stars, Bill Hayes and Susan Seaforth Hayes of Days of our Lives. 7 A couple whose onscreen and real-life romance was widely covered by both the soap opera magazines and the mainstream press. Hisotry of Local Soap Opera In the Philippines we have this â€Å"teleserye (television series)† or â€Å"teledrama (tv drama)†, and now we also have â€Å"telepantasya (tv fantasy)† or â€Å"pantaserye (fantasy series)†.These kind of shows has been part of the Filipino culture for years. The first Philippine Soap Opera was first aired on the radio, it was Gulong ng Palad on 1949 then expanded into a television series in the early 1960's. 8 In the 90's Soap Operas like Mara Clara begin to air, and it is one of the longest running Soap Opera in Philippine History, a story about two child that were exchanged with different parents, and ende d up as mortal enemies, a story plot that has been used by modern teledramas even up today. Soap operas in The Philippines originated when Gulong ng Palad was first heard on radio in 1949.Then it was presented into television in the early 1960s. The first Philippine TV soap opera was Hiwaga sa Bahay na Bato in 1963, and it was produced by ABS-CBN. Liwanag ng Pag-ibig, Prinsipe Amante, and many others soon followed. 9 The â€Å"soaps† were usually shown during daytime, however in 1996; soap opera programming was moved to primetime because of the popularity gained by the Mexican telenovela, Marimar, which was aired here in our country on RPN 9. This marked the start of the telenovela craze here in the Philippines. Major networks followed the trend by showing local and foreign telenovelas in their different timeslots.Philippine primetime started to focus on serial dramas and anthologies; both becoming highly watched programs. Last 2008, TV5 revived serial dramas for Philippine P rimetime television. In 2000, ABS-CBN, made a milestone move in television when it introduced Pangako sa ‘Yo, which became to be the first official teleserye, and Kay Tagal Kang Hinintay. These teleseryes set the standard for present teleserye productions in the Philippines. This new type of soap opera became a big hit in the country, and its popularity was soon spread to other countries.Because of this phenomenon, subsequent soap operas shown on television have regularly come to be referred as teleseryes and GMA Network began referring to their television dramas as teledramas. In 2011, GMA Network, recently make their drama series like, Amaya (first historical drama show in the country), and Ikaw Lang ang Mamahalin (first TV drama had a remake of the classic series in a same network). ABS-CBN did a remake of the longest running teleserye, Mara Clara and Mula Sa Puso. TV5 did also a remake of the long running teleserye, Valiente. 10Today, Philippine dramas gained international recognition from international award-giving bodies, cementing the reputation of the Philippines as a prime drama producer. Most of these nominated dramas were from ABS-CBN. It started with Lobo winning the Best Telenovela category in the 30th BANFF World Television Festival. Several dramas were also nominated in the International Emmy for the telenovela category, including ABS-CBN's Dahil May Isang Ikaw, Kahit Isang Saglit and GMA's Magdusa Ka. Magkaribal of ABS-CBN was recently nominated in the 2011 New York Festivals TV and Film Awards.Another show, Eva Fonda managed to win awards from the Seoul International Drama Awards were also the lead actress Cristine Reyes managed to get a nomination as Best Leading Actress and a Special award for the show. Statement of the problem The study aimed to determine the factors that make the viewers want to watch soap operas and to have a more in-depth evaluation of the effects that they give to the viewers. Significance of the Study This study focuses on the different types of Soap Opera and its viewers about its influences regarding their values and character development obtained from watching foreign and local soap operas.This study will provide information about foreign and local soap operas. 2. This study will stress out the different soap operas that are regularly patronized by the people. 3. This study will give motives and gratifications that are achieved from watching soap operas. 4. This study will present important factors needed to prove how soap operas contribute to the moral development of the viewers. Definition of Terms Standard Definition. The terms included in this research will be defined by using the printed materials (e. g. dictionary, encyclopedia) to facilitate easy understanding of the study.Culture. The word refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activities significance and importance. Electronic Media. It is the media that utilizes electronic or electro mec hanical energy for the end-user to access the content like the television and radio. Impact. The word means having a strong effect to something. Industry. The word means manufacturing of goods and services within a category. Influences. It is the power of two persons or things to affect others. Innovation. It refers to the act of starting something for the first time. Local Media.These are shows produced and aired in the different TV that were bought here for local viewing. Local Soap Operas. These are soap operas that are considered to be proudly Filipino. Soap Opera. This is an ongoing, episodic work of fiction, usually broadcast on television or radio. Telenovelas. It is a distinct genre different from soap operas, for telenovelas have an ending and come to an end after a long run. Television. It is a telecommunication medium for transmitting and receiving moving images that can be monochrome or colored, with or without accompanying sound. Values.It can be defined as broad prefer ences concerning appropriate courses of action or outcomes. Viewers. It is the people who watched or avid fans of the localized soap operas. NOTES 1†³Sex and Suffering in the Afternoon†. Time Magazine, (1976). 2url: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Soap_opera#cite_note-Bowles-118-0 3A. Wissbert, â€Å"Television Across Asia: Television Industries. Program Formats and Globalization†, Television Across Asia, (2005). 4Gerard J. Waggett, One Life to Live. The Soap Opera Encyclopedia. (1997), 91. 5Christopher H. Schemering, The Soap Opera Encyclopedia (1997), 66–73. 6Jason C.Mittell, Television and American Culture. (New York: Oxford University Press. 2008), 191–192. 7Rina Jimenez-David, â€Å"The Rise and Rise of Asian Entertainment†, Inquirer Magazine, (January 27, 2008). 8url:http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Philippine_drama 8url:http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Telenovela 9url:http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Philippine_drama 10url:http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Philippine_drama CHAPTER 2 Impact/Effects of Soap Opera Soap operas are by far some of the most powerful shows on television. Powerful in the sense that it has the ability to get you deeply immersed into the themes and the type of characters it presents.Drama is an essential for humans. But of course its not always loneliness that triggers soap addiction. Sometimes people could watch it for the sole purpose of entertainment or this relentless desire to become a daytime actor/actress. The majority feel that such contents should be aired on Lifetime: Television for women, but the truth is that a handful of men also watch it, such as moi. Depression is usually caused by increasing moments of solitude. This is when your mind gets delirious and urges you to seek alternative sources of connection and drama.Soap Operas are perhaps the best mediums for these as characters have the ability to fiercely drop axes on hears and at times tickles hearts. It serves as a prescription for h ealing our hearts when we feel that it belongs nowhere. The psychology behind this is just ravishing. There are a lot of research will be done in health communications to figure out every correlation they can between soap operas and as to how it engages the human mind. It’s astounding what chemistry viewers can share with some of the characters. What's even more astounding is how charismatic they can really be and how this affects you as an individual.Women feel a more superior need of connection than men do but more men should watch it because some of the male characters of these soaps resemble some of the superheroes and villains that we read in comics or watch in other programs; with blends of other characteristics that make them worth following. Foreign Soap Opera Soap operas became something of an addiction for millions of television viewers. The weekend couldn't end fast enough for many viewers and fans as they waited for Monday's shows to see what would happen followin g the now-infamous Friday Cliffhangers.And while soap opera addiction many not be anything nearly as serious as an alcohol or drug dependency, the way to wean people from the addictions is very much the same: cold turkey. The first time that many soap fans were unable to visit their â€Å"television families† was when the three major networks – ABC, CBS, and NBC – broadcast the coverage of the OJ Simpson trial, and there was no longer an option for the viewers to watch their episodes at a later date or time. The viewers were forced to go without them for weeks and weeks.Initially, fans flooded the networks with complaints, but as the separation anxiety started to lessen many fans found other things to do or other programs to watch. A real life soap opera had supplanted many loyal viewers from their second homes. And while industry experts warned the networks that taking soaps away from their loyal viewers was going to result in trouble for the networks, most net works either refused to believe that the soap fans would tune out for good or they just didn't care. This was not the first time that the networks' opinions were misguided. The effects of soap opera are the same as the television.A psychological effect there is a theory that when a person plays video games or watches TV, the basal ganglia portion of the brain becomes very active and dopamine is released. Some scientists believe that release of high amounts of dopamine reduces the amount of the neurotransmitter available for control of movement, perception of pain and pleasure and formation of feelings, although this remains a controversial conclusion. A study conducted by Herbert Krugman found that while viewers are watching television the right side of the brain is twice as active as the left which causes a state of hypnosis.Physical effects studies in both children and adults have found an association between the number of hours of television watched and obesity this study found t hat watching television decreases the metabolic rate in children to below that found in children at rest. 1 Local Soap Opera Philippine soap opera/teleseryes were used sometimes to show the different status or situations of the Filipino people in the present time, sometimes it is all about the past experiences that we’ve gone through so that the viewers will be able to relate themselves in the soap opera.Here in the Philippines soap operas are in the primetime/evening slots where people are in their respective homes in that time. Soap Operas became a daily routine for the Filipino viewers. Philippine drama had its ability to the range of popularity in early 2000s (decade), many of these dramas have become popular throughout Southeast Asia, East Asia, Africa and North America, particularly in Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia and Cambodia. These dramas are often dubbed into some languages, and sometime have its English and other foreign subtitles when imported into those markets. ABS-CBN started the exportation of their dramas, like classical dramas as they often have a universal message. Pangako Sa Yo (The Promise) is one of the most successful Philippine dramas abroad. Prior to China, the story mesmerized people in Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Cambodia and Africa. ABS-CBN also introduced a website called ABS-CBN International Sales, for easy access to their shows. Another ABS-CBN shows, Sana Maulit Muli was also aired in Taiwan, Lobo (dubbed as She-Wolf: The Last Sentinel), Tayong Dalawa, Dahil May Isang Ikaw, Kahit Isang Saglit and Katorse.GMA Network's Boys Nxt Door, a teen melodrama, was the first Philippine TV series aired in South Korea and 1994 Mexican remake MariMar was aired in Thailand, Malaysia, China, Singapore,Indonesia, Cambodia, Vietnam, Uganda, Kenya and Hawaii, USA, another GMA Network shows such as Habang Kapiling Ka, Kahit Kailan, Bakekang, Muli, Impostora, Mga Mata ni Anghelita and Dyesebel was also released in some countries in South east Asia and East Asia. Promoting soap opera through culture Culture has been defined in many different ways.One of the ways is that culture is seen to equate with Mass Culture as a commercial culture, mass produced for mass consumption. In recent years, Korean popular culture has gained much recognition across many Asian countries through mass media entertainment such as dramas, movies, and songs since 1999. The trend is known as â€Å"Hallyu,† which literally means Korean wave in English. 3 The Korean Ministry of Culture and Tourism appointed â€Å"Korean Wave† stars as cultural ambassadors in countries that have had a strained political relationship with Korea (Cho, 2005). The Korean wave affected intra-regional tourism, from Asia to the U.  S. , supporting an increase in inbound tourism.Popular culture such as TV programs, soap opera or drama and pop-star has been a very effective vehicle in attracting tourists to a destination while boosting the economic impact s). Media relations such as news articles, movies and popular culture, commonly referred to as autonomous agents, are considered to be more influential on image formation in that they have higher credibility and ability to reach mass crowds than the destination-originated information (Gartner, 1993; Gartner & Shen, 1992; Henefors & Mossberg, 2002).Most research about autonomous agents focuses on the strong influence of negative impact from news media such as political issues, violence, terrorist activities, and natural disaster. However, little research has been devoted to examine the impact of pop-culture on destination image formation in the aspect of an autonomous agent. Popular culture such as soap opera offers tremendous marketing opportunities for tourism organizations, such as destination marketing organizations (DMOs).DMOs can use pop-culture as springboards for destination promotions and generate marketing opportunities at the different stages of the destination promotion p rocess. It is significant for marketers to take the exposure as a chance to rebuild their image management strategy, depending on how the destination is represented through soap opera. Promoters should understand the content of the soap opera and identify how the destination is depicted in it.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Race and Ethnicity Essay

Throughout the course of this twisted Monopoly, many themes and stereotypes arose to become apparent. However the two main themes that I observed were gender biases and stereotypes involving race and inequality. These two themes became apparent through the traits and personality the players began demonstrating as the game went on. It was obvious that the blue male (which would represent a white male in real life) became greedy and aggressive as he was set up to be successful and of course was. You then see how player three and five become unsuccessful because of how the game is set up. This represents the stereotype of a woman who is considered an inferior. As the game went on these players were very cautious of every decision they made because it was made obvious that each one was indeed very critical to any success they strived to achieve. By the end of the game it was extremely apparent to everyone that certain opportunities were given to certain people in the game. This basically made it impossible for them to lose this game. This theme however then transfers to reality in that the stereo typical white male will usually be given a much better opportunity then say an African American female. The two articles that I chose reflects the two themes of race and gender stereo types and how they correspond with success or opportunities. In the first article, Workplace Gender Bias: Not Just between Strangers, they discuss how there is â€Å"substantial inequalities between genders in the modern workplace and the evidence for stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination. † They then also discuss how this concept can then be applied to race or age minorities as well. The article also explains the significant difference in that studies show that there are gender differences in career choices, salary, harassment, etc. This directly relates to our theme in our game in that the money and income the blue male (which represented a white male) was much greater than that of the red female (who could represent a female minority). In addition, the article explains how many women â€Å"face significant challenges in career advancement,† and â€Å"Women are more likely to self-select into less prestigious and lower paying careers compared to men (Konrad, 2003). † There were many similarities between this article and our monopoly game in that stereo types and feminization of women occur and are apparent in real life just like our game. It is similar in that just like how the article describes and how it is true in society, women are treated as inferior in our game. Because in society women are stereotyped and made the inferior. Like in the game, in real life a women of a minority will struggle so much more to become successful making every decision critical because of the way they are viewed in society. It is also relative in that this is to be true not only for just women, but for race and other minorities of society as well. In society and in the game, these people are not given as good of opportunities as the superior and it is much more difficult to succeed. There is a direct correlation between what is described in the article and what happened in the game. In conclusion, this article relates to one of the themes of our game in that there is gender inequality in reality and the male is more likely to succeed with a higher income and greater opportunity. Within the second article, Racial Mismatch in the Classroom: Beyond Black-White Differences, demonstrates our theme of race inequality. The main point the article is trying to show is that research shows that when the teacher is of the same race or ethnicity of the student, they receive more positive and helpful instruction than if the student is of a different race or ethnicity of the teacher. The research and analysis was mostly based on black and white subjects however. This article not only can relate to just race, but also class, gender, background, IQ, and other factors like we would see in our game. The second article directly corresponds with our game and our other theme in that people of different race are given different opportunity to succeed in life quite often and are stereotyped as well. We see that a white student with a white teacher would be getting a 1 / 2.better education which then sets them up in that they are more likely to succeed in life than the black student. In our game we see that the player who represents our white male is set up to succeed, while our player who represents a minority is set up to fail. This is similar to our game because certain people would work well together and bargain, while some people were just cast aside or not even given the opportunity to bargain because of the unfortunate circumstances they were under. Both of these articles relate to our game in that they represent the opportunities and stereo types of  not only race and class, but gender as well. These stereotypes are also apparent and can be true in reality also. So we see that the changes made in our monopoly game, and the articles found, directly relate to real life and how society works. Although it may be harsh, it is true and can be proven by not many studies and articles, but our twisted monopoly game as well that certain people (like the white male) are going to succeed much more often than someone like a black female. There are these stereotypes because in reality a majority of people fit into them. They fit into them not in the way people normally believe they do, but because society and the superior have created them. That then changes the opportunities in life and the circumstances in which they are under. Works Cited Nadler, J. T. , & Stockdale, M. S. (2012). Workplace Gender Bias: Not Just Between Strangers. North American Journal Of Psychology, 14(2), 281-291. McGrady, P. B. , & Reynolds, J. R. (2013). Racial Mismatch in the Classroom: Beyond Black- white Differences. Sociology Of Education, 86(1), 3-17. doi:10. 1177/0038040712444857 POWERED BY TCPDF (WWW. TCPDF. ORG).

Thursday, August 29, 2019

The impact on the american public school system

Democracy and instruction are footings that are clearly definable yet easy misunderstood. Education is the procedure of determining society and future coevalss ( Hollis, as stated in Carr & A ; Harnett, 1996 ) ; nevertheless, it is more than simply learning immature people to read, compose, and decipher. Education is about fixing people to go responsible citizens, bettering societal conditions, and advancing cultural integrity ( Do We Still Need Public Schools, 1996 ) . Democracy, on the other manus, is a familiar word that continues to be at the centre of confusion and abuse. Defined as a type of authorities in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised straight by them, democracy is a set of ideals and rules by and large environing the thought of freedom. When jointly trying to specify democracy and instruction, it is easy to happen yourself amongst a sea of vagueness, confusion, and obfuscation. Possibly the most effectual manner to specify, explicate, or understand the interconnection between democracy and instruction is to show a clear illustration of a critical issue within the American instruction system and the impact it has on our state ‘s democracy: standardised testing for answerability. Standardized proving for answerability, besides known every bit high bets proving, has become a combative cause for argument. It, harmonizing to Dylan ( 2010 ) , is best described as â€Å" the usage of standardised accomplishment trials for the intent of keeping instructors, schools, and territories accountable † ( p. 107 ) . Populating in a democratic society, instructors, schools, and territories are being held accountable by taxpayers and parents ( although these are frequently the same people ) for the exclusive intent of guaranting that pupils enrolled in the American public school system are having an appropriate instruction. The history of standardised proving for answerability can day of the month back to the 19th century when public schools in England and Wales had been financed by voluntary organisations. By 1833, the function of support within the public schools expanded to include grants for the building of new edifices, the preparation of instructors, and for the encouragement of go toing school ( Dylan, 2010 ) . In 1858, a Royal Commission was established to ask into the province of popular instruction in England and to see what steps were required for extension of sound and inexpensive direction. The Commission ‘s study, published in 1861, recommended that the sum of public money paid to each simple school should depend on three factors: the status of the school edifices ; pupil attending ; and the public presentation of the pupils go toing the school on an unwritten scrutiny of every kid in every school to which grants were paid. Like England and Wales, standardized proving within the United States dates back to the 19th century ; nevertheless involvement in standardised testing for answerability may be traced to the landmark 1966 study Equality of Educational Opportunity, besides known as the Coleman study for its lead writer, sociologist James Coleman. Written as a survey to compare the distribution of resources and chances among kids of different races, the Coleman study besides examined differences in accomplishment tonss, or outcomes. Ravitch ( 2002 ) stated that the survey was important for many grounds, including the â€Å" displacement in research focal point from inputs to consequences, ensuing in the writers ‘ determination to analyze how school resources affected accomplishment † ( p. 14 ) . Prior to the Coleman study, instruction reform had focused chiefly on the distribution of resources, on the premise that more generous commissariats for instructors ‘ wages, installations, text editions, and supplies would repair whatever ailed the state ‘s schools. After the Coleman study, reformists advanced a broader array of proposals, many of which sought alterations in public presentation instead than, or in add-on to, additions in resources ( Ravitch, 2002 ) . This displacement in focal point from resources to student accomplishment was facilitated by the increased handiness of trial tonss. In 1970, the constitution of the National Assessment of Education Progress ( NAEP ) provided cumulative new informations and tendency lines to document educational accomplishment of American pupils. By 1992, the NAEP coverage was expanded to include pupils in take parting provinces. As more and more information was collected about pupil public presentation, elected functionaries came under force per unit area to make something about low accomplishment and about the big spreads among different groups of pupils. Confronted with the demand to better their schools in order to pull new industries to their provinces and vicinities, elected functionaries, harmonizing to Ravitch ( 2002 ) , looked at instruction much as they looked at other maps of authorities and at private corporations. Elected functionaries concluded that what mattered most was consequences – that is, whether pupils were larning. They used trial tonss as the best step of pupil acquisition, and they urged that school s should concentrate unrelentingly on bettering pupil accomplishment. By the early 1980s, governors were turning to concern leaders as their natural Alliess in seeking to better their province ‘s educational system. In every province, instruction was the individual biggest budget point, normally devouring 40 per centum of the province ‘s outgos ( Ravitch, 2002 ) . Some governors wanted to acquire instruction under their control, some wanted to do instruction disbursement more cost effectual, and most wanted to carry through both. The governors looked to concern leaders for advice on pull offing complex, labour-intensive organisations. The concern leaders looked at the schools through the lenses that were customary for them. They expected to see transparence of describing about budget, resources, operations, and consequences ; they expected to see answerability for public presentation. They encouraged governors and other elected functionaries to see incentive constructions that worked routinely in concern to better public presentation. In April 1983, the biggest accelerator for alteration within the public school system came in the signifier of a study titled A State At Risk. The National Commission on Excellence in Education issued its eye-opening study that indicted educational functionaries, schools leaders, and the American populace for complacence ( â€Å" A Nation Accountable, † 2008 ) . The recommendations set Forth in A State At Risk promised permanent reform through demanding the best attempt and public presentation from all pupils, whether they are gifted or less able, flush or disadvantaged, whether destined for college, the farm, or industry ( U.S. Dept. of Ed. , 1983 ) . A State At Risk marked the beginning of an development in proving for answerability and standards-based instruction reform. This motion towards standards-based instruction and appraisal that began with A State At Risk went national with the transition of the Improving America ‘s Schools Act of 1994 ( IASA ) . IASA reauthorized the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 ( ESEA ) , foremost enacted as portion of President Lyndon Johnson ‘s War on Poverty that was designed to concentrate federal support on hapless schools with low accomplishing pupils. In exchange for stressing higher pupil larning results, the revamped ESEA gave provinces and vicinities more flexibleness to plan and run their ain federally funded instruction plans. The 1994 ESEA was intended to work in concert with Goals 2000: Educate America Act, which supported province and local attempts to put ambitious content and public presentation criterions and to transport out school reforms that will raise the achievement degrees of all pupils ( U.S. Dept. of Ed. , 1996 ) . With the new millenary, the criterions and answerability motion reached a new degree. President George W. Bush called for important reforms at the federal degree, which led to the passage of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 ( NCLB ) . This jurisprudence, which was passed with bipartizan bulks in Congress and with the support of the concern and civil rights communities, built on the foundation laid in the 1980s and 1990s by guaranting that provinces accepting federal authorities ‘s targeted investing agree to step and study on consequences in footings of criterions and answerability. No Child Left Behind was complex and contained many plans, nevertheless its cardinal focal point was answerability. This was an issue that brought together Republicans and Democrats. Harmonizing to Ravitch ( 2002 ) , had there non been bipartizan understanding on answerability, NCLB would ne'er hold become a jurisprudence. Both parties believed that answerability was the lever that would raise accomplishment. While many advocates for educational reform will reason that standardised proving for answerability is a agency to transfuse a positive alteration, the cogency and value of standardised testing is frequently capable for argument. Assorted surveies raise inquiries about whether betterments in trial tonss really signal an betterment for larning ( Cannell, 1988 ) . Other surveies point to standardise trials ‘ narrowness of content, their deficiency of lucifer with course of study and direction, their disregard of higher order believing accomplishments, and the limited relevancy and meaningfulness of their multiple pick formats. Harmonizing to Herman ( 1994 ) , instead than exercising a positive influence on pupil acquisition, proving may trivialise the acquisition and instructional procedure, distort course of study, and usurp valuable instructional clip. When concentrating on the effects of standardised proving for answerability, it is indispensable to find whether or non betterments in trials tonss really signal an betterment for larning. Harmonizing to Ravitch ( 2010 ) , the information derived from trials can be highly valuable, if the trials are valid and dependable. Test consequences can demo what pupils have learned, have non learned, and where they need betterment. They can state parents how their kids are making in comparing to other kids of their age and class. Test consequences can inform instructors and school decision makers to find which pupils need extra aid or different methods of direction. It can place pupils who need aid in larning English or particular instruction services. They can inform educational leaders and policy shapers about the advancement of the instruction system as a whole. Consequences can demo which plans are doing a difference and which are non, which should be expanded and which should be terminate d. Last, they can assist to direct extra support, preparation, and resources to instructors and schools that need them ( Ravitch, 2010 ) . The drawback with utilizing standardised trials to do of import determinations about people ‘s lives is that standardised trials are non precise instruments ( Ravitch, 2010 ) . All trials have a border of mistake and the same pupil could bring forth different tonss when taking the same trial on different yearss. Testing experts ( Ravitch, 2010 ) often remind school functionaries that standardized trial tonss should non be used in isolation to do eventful determinations about pupils, but in concurrence with other steps of pupil public presentation, such as classs, category engagement, prep, and instructors ‘ recommendations. When finding if a standardised trial signals an betterment of acquisition, or deficiency thereof, cogency, as stated by Riffert ( 2005 ) , becomes a inquiry of whether a trial does so mensurate what its developers intended to mensurate. If a trial fails to supply an acceptable degree of cogency for a certain intent, the consequences are deemed useless. The cogency of standardised trials relies mostly on the course of study taught by the instructors prior to the existent trial. Adequate exposure to the course of study allows each pupil a just opportunity to derive cognition of the stuff. However, it is virtually impossible to obtain curriculum cogency at the province or national degree due to a high grade of diverseness within each schoolroom, school site, territory, and province ( Riffert, 2005 ) . For this ground, seldom will the trial green goods consequences that replicate aims that coincide with the schoolroom ( Goodwin and Driscoll, 1980 ) . The effects of standardised proving for answerability go beyond dependability and cogency. A common concern heard by educational leaders is narrowness of content due to a focal point on nucleus course of study. Similarly, many advocates argue that standardised proving for answerability disregards higher order believing accomplishments and alternatively focal points on lower order believing accomplishments such as callback of facts and information ( Dylan, 2010 ) . As advocates for standardised testing for answerability continue to concentrate on increasing trial tonss, instructors and decision makers are forced to concentrate their attempts on trial readying, go forthing many to oppugn whether an addition in trial tonss signals an overall addition in cognition. In a widely reported analysis, Amrein and Berliner ( 2002 ) examined the impact of the debut of proving for answerability in 18 provinces. They concluded that although there was clear grounds that tie ining answerability ( effects ) to prove mark results had increased tonss on the trials used within the plan, there was no grounds of improved trial tonss on other related steps. Furthermore, they found that the debut of standardised proving for answerability was associated with increased pupil dropout rates, inappropriate trial readying patterns, and decreased teacher morale. A subsequent analysis ( Amrein & A ; Berliner, 2002 ) confirmed these findings and indicated that the debut of hig h school graduation scrutinies was associated with a lowering of mean academic accomplishment. While standardised proving for answerability doubtless robs pupils of an reliable acquisition experience, the most scarey impact is the impression that high-stakes testing via medias our democratic society. Democracy is the foundation of our state ‘s history and hereafter, and guaranting and prolonging it is at the bosom of the American public school system. Harmonizing to A State at Risk, â€Å" a high degree of shared instruction is indispensable to a free, democratic society and to the fosterage of a common civilization, particularly in a state that prides itself on pluralism and single freedom † ( 1983 ) . Because democracy assumes and depends upon active and engaged people ( â€Å" Do We Still Need Public Schools, † 1996 ) , the American public school system is the vehicle in which to educate all people in order to accomplish certain basic democratic ends. Harmonizing to Ravitch ( 2010 ) , in a democracy, schooling is vitally of import and really different from schooling in other societies. No other establishment in our society is every bit suited as the public schools for presenting the immature to both the thoughts inherent in a societal and political democracy every bit good as the ideals from which democracy is derived. Harmonizing to Wolk ( 2007 ) , we are populating in a school psychotic belief. He poses the inquiry, â€Å" Do we truly believe that our schools animate our kids to populate a life of contemplation, imaginativeness, empathy, and societal duty? † ( p. 649 ) . Because of standardised proving for answerability, our state, and our schools are afflicted with a famine of educational imaginativeness, a deficiency of pedagogical bravery, and rampant anti-intellectualism ( Wolk, 2007 ) . Our textbook-driven course of study have become educational ageless gesture machines of rational, moral, and originative averageness. We dumb down and sanitise the course of study in the name of techno-rational efficiency and â€Å" American Interests † ( Wolk, 2007 ) . When our kids ‘s school experiences are chiefly about make fulling in spaces on worksheets, regurgitating facts from text editions, composing formulaic five-paragraph essays, taking multiple pick trials, and doing the occasional panorama – that is, when they are barren of chances to make an original idea – we should anticipate the obvious result: kids – and subsequently grownups – who are unable to believe for themselves. None of this should surprise us. Passive schooling creates inactive people. If we want people to believe, larn, and attention about the many dimensions of life, if we want neighbours who accept duty of be givening to the universe and doing it a better topographic point, so we need schools and course of study that are really about life and the universe. Alternatively, we have schools that prepare kids to believe like a wassailer ( Wolk, 2007 ) . In order for democracy to go on on, there is an undoubted demand for the production of democratic people via the public school system. However, standardized proving for answerability is working against the production of democratic people and is alternatively, fabricating future citizens satisfied with averageness and ignorance. From scripted course of study to a focal point entirely on mathematics and linguistic communication humanistic disciplines, schools that are committed to merely bettering standardised trials tonss have produced a state of ace trial takers. Our current public school system has done nil to develop thoughtful, considerate human existences, or to educate a democratic people ( Ravitch, 2010 ) . The transition of No Child Left Behind has made proving and accountability our national instruction scheme. The chief intent was to raise trial tonss, irrespective of whether or non pupils acquired any cognition of history, scientific discipline, literature, geographics, the humanistic disciplines, and other topics that were non of import for answerability intents. Harmonizing to Ravitch ( 2010 ) , accent on trial public presentation to run into criterions in certain academic countries may decrease the end of constructing active and morally sensitive citizens who carry out their civic responsibilities. Over the last decennary, pedagogues, policymakers, and the populace have begun to hammer a consensus that our public schools must concentrate on better fixing all kids for the demands of citizenship in the twenty-first century ( â€Å" Investing In a Culture of Learning, † 2010 ) . This push has resulted in the rise of standardised testing as the agencies of educating and measuring the success of all pupils, schools, and territories enrolled in the public school system. However, as outlined within this paper, standardized proving for answerability has many unintended effects, including: narrowing of the course of study and experiences, a focal point on lower degree thought as opposed to high order thought, a turning dissatisfaction amongst pedagogues and parents, and in conclusion, the impression that standardized proving for answerability via medias our democratic society. Despite the cooling and formidable effects, many advocates of educational reform are inquiring the inqui ry â€Å" if non standardized proving for answerability, so what? † Performance based appraisal, besides known as reliable appraisal, is an equivocal construct to pedagogues ( Keyser & A ; Howell, 2008 ) . Some refer to as a specific appraisal that reflects a real-world context while others describe it as an appraisal aligned to real-world activities or some combination thereof. Harmonizing to Wood, et Al ( 2007 ) , public presentation appraisals are tools that allow instructors to garner information about what pupils can make with what they are larning – scientific discipline experiments that pupils design, carry out, analyze, and compose up ; computing machine plans that pupils create and test out ; research enquiries that they pursue, seeking and piecing grounds about a inquiry, and showing it in written and unwritten signifier. Whether the accomplishment or criterion being measured is composing, speech production, scientific or mathematical literacy, or cognition of history and societal scientific discipline research, pupils really execute undertakings affecting these accomplishments and the instructor observes and gathers information about, and scores the public presentation based upon a set of pre-determined standards. Performance based appraisal, frequently locally controlled and affecting multiple steps of accomplishment, offer a manner to travel beyond the bounds and negative effects of standardised proving for answerability ( Wood, et Al, 2007 ) . When comparing standardized proving for answerability and public presentation based appraisals, the research ( Wood et al, 2007 ) suggests that such appraisals are better tools for demoing the extent to which pupils have developed higher order believing accomplishments, such as the abilities to analyse, synthesise, and evaluate information. They lead to more student battle in acquisition and stronger public presentation on the sorts of reliable undertakings that better resemble what they will necessitate to make in the universe outside of school. They besides provide richer feedback to instructors, taking to improved acquisition results for pupils. As a state, we need a strong and vivacious public instruction system. Ravitch ( 2010 ) stated that as we seek to reform our schools, we must take attention to make no injury. In fact, we must take attention to do our public schools one time once more the pride of our state. Our public instruction system is the cardinal component of our democratic society. Our public schools have been the tract to chance and a better life for coevalss of Americans, giving them the tools to manner their ain life and to better the general public assistance of all. To the extent that we strengthen them, we strengthen our democracy ( pgs. 241-242 ) .

Clinical Reflective Journal Entry Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Clinical Reflective Journal Entry - Essay Example This patient was leaving his hospital unit and it was clear that he demonstrated a significant risk of falling. Upon witnessing this, I offered to help the patient, however he rejected my offer of help. Instead, the patient chose to use his wheelchair. He then exited the hospital unit, and similar to the early patient was discharged from the hospital by the physician. After witnessing these two events – the woman and then the man leaving – I asked the staff nurse if these patients were permitted to leave their rooms. The nurse responded that they, in-fact, were permitted to leave, as the hospital was not permitted to hold them in their hospital units.   Upon learning this information, I notified that nurse that the woman look clearly cognitively impaired, and that the man was about to fall. In response to my query, the nurse indicated that despite these factors, she was still not permitted to hold the patients in their hospital units. While I lack the legal and ethica l background to accurately determine if the nursing staff and physician truly were not allowed to hold the patients in their hospital units, from an outside and common sense perspective it appears that the nursing staff did not function to their full professional capacity. It’s clear that these patients were mentally or physically impaired and that permitting them to freely leave the unit posed a risk to themselves, as well as a liability risk to the hospital. Furthermore, the patients were housed on the neurological floor.... Upon learning this information, I notified that nurse that the woman look clearly cognitively impaired, and that the man was about to fall. In response to my query, the nurse indicated that despite these factors, she was still not permitted to hold the patients in their hospital units. While I lack the legal and ethical background to accurately determine if the nursing staff and physician truly were not allowed to hold the patients in their hospital units, from an outside and common sense perspective it appears that the nursing staff did not function to their full professional capacity. It’s clear that these patients were mentally or physically impaired and that permitting them to freely leave the unit posed a risk to themselves, as well as a liability risk to the hospital. Furthermore, the patients were housed on the neurological floor because of cognitive dysfunctioning. Ultimately, it seems overwhelmingly apparent that the nursing staff at the University of Texas Medical Br anch should have taken more vigilant action in response to these patients. Professional Growth In terms of growth the experience revealed a number of important elements for my professional career. One of the most pervasive experiences I came to recognize was the cynicism many of the nursing staff experienced in relation to the hospital’s laws. I recognized that simply allowing individuals that were cognitively impaired to walk outside of their hospital room and outside the ward did not make practical sense. In addition, I believe that on some level that the nursing practitioners also recognized the general absurdity of such practices, yet they did so with a healthy dose of cynicism towards the hospitals practices. Rather than

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Company Director Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Company Director - Essay Example Normally, the directors of a company are not required to own any of its shares. Economists have analysed the problems, which may arise when the people managing a business do not own all of it. Managers in this position are believed to manage the business less efficiently than if they did own it.1 In broad terms the duties can be distilled into three propositions: Firstly, directors are under a duty to act bona fide in the interests of the company. Secondly, to exercise their powers under company's constitution for the proper purpose. Finally, to avoid conflict of interests and to profit from their position. For the first time, however, all the duties owed by directors to their company have been set out in statute, in Part 10 (ss.170-177) of the CA 2006. Section 171 of Companies Act 2006 states that duty to act within powers. A director of a company must (a) act in accordance with the company's constitution, and (b) only exercise powers for the purposes for which they are conferred. The constitution of the company is one or more documents setting out the rules by which the company is to be operated. While the constitution is subject to the Act, it sets out what powers directors have and how they are to exercise them. Directors must abide by these rules. If this power is given for one purpose, they cannot exercise it for a different proper purpose, even if they think that to do so would be in the best interests of the company.2 In Re Smith & Fawcett Ltd Lord Greene MR went to add that Directors must not exercise their powers for any "collateral purpose". This is called the proper purpose doctrine. The facts of Extrasure Travel Insurances Ltd v Cohen3, afford a clear illustration of a power being exercised for an improper purpose. More generally, however, the issue of whether Directors have used a power for a proper purpose arises in relation to their authority to issue shares. If shares are allotted in exchange for cash where the company is in need of additional capital the duty will not be broken. But where Directors issue shares in order to dilute the voting rights of an existing majority shareholder because he or she is blocking a resolution supporting, for example a takeover bid, then the duty will be breached. The Privy Council in Howard Smith Ltd v Ampol Petroleum Ltd4 subjected the content of the duty to through scrutiny. The Directors allotted shares to a company, which had made a takeover bid. The effect of the shares was to reduce the majority holding of two other shareholders who had made a rival bid from 55 to 36 percent. The two shareholders sought declaration that the share allotment was invalid as being an improper exercise of power. The court held that it must be unconstitutional for Directors to use their fiduciary powers over the shares in the company purely for the purpose of destroying an existing majority, or creating a new majority, which did not previously exist. Section 172 of Companies Act 2006 introduces significant change in common law. This Act states that duty to promote the success of the company. Section 172(1) a director of a company must act

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Administrative Ethics Paper Research Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 1

Administrative Ethics - Research Paper Example Put simply, two organizations are forced to pay OCR a sum of $1,975,220 for losing two laptops that have patients’ private information (HHS, 2014). Undeniably, such information are at a risk of misuse hence the need for reinforcement. OCR’s deputy director asserts that, â€Å"Covered organizations must understand that mobile devices and computer security is the entity’s responsibility.† Consequently, the sum required of the entities sends a simple message that encryption is the best protection against such incidences. The two entities in this case are Concentra Health Services (Concentra) and QCA Health Plan, Inc. of Arkansas. Correspondingly, the issue in the case affects many people in different measures. First, the most affected are patients whose information is stored in the stolen laptops. Jessica et al. (2011) assert that one of the core responsibilities of medical practitioners is confidentiality. As such, it is required that healthcare professionals keep patients’ information secret and private unless there is a consent to disclose health information. It is the underlying reason why patients share a lot of confidential information with medical practitioners. In essence, failure to keep the information private harms patients. Besides, patients often share private information with professionals. It is without doubt that the patient-physician trust is broken when the clinic does not maintain privacy of information. The situation affects patients in many ways. One, there are patients with personally sensitive health information that they sought to keep secret. Even so, that the laptops are stolen means such information is no longer private (Barrett et al. 2010). It is very likely that the information is in the hands of people who want to misuse it. Moreover, patients are affected in that they will hardly seek medical assistance from the hospital. Undoubtedly, people learn from experience, and the availability of other people’s experience teaches the

Monday, August 26, 2019

Operation Ripper, Korean War Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Operation Ripper, Korean War - Essay Example tion involved the entire divisions of Eighth Army as well as the airborne troops of the 187th Regiment Combat Team and the 2nd and 4th Ranger companies. A number of the historical accounts on Operation Ripper identified it as offensive with an exclusive objective of capturing Seoul. However, there are accounts that Operation Ripper has a deeper goal than merely driving away the enemy from a specific location. Dorr and Thompson (2003) explained that throughout the Korean War, the American soldier did not have the killer mentality that would ensure efficacy in the battlefield: "A study showed that 27 percent balked, deliberately passing up a chance to aim and shoot their MI Garand rifles when an enemy soldier presented a target."2 So, the newly installed General Matthew Ridgway, planned Operation Ripper to remedy this problem and inflict as much casualty as possible. The operation was originally called Operation Killer, describing its ultimate objective. Soldiers were conditioned to kill. They were reminded that the job entailed killing and the destruction of enemy equipment. This is demonstrated in the standard pep talk delivered by sergeants to the UN troops: "Your job is to point that goddamned thing into the other guys face and shoot him deader than a doornail."3 The tactics involved included the coordinated offensives and strictly preserved lateral security that avoided immediate interdiction.4 After the operation, it was reported that the United Nation troops were able to kill 7,000 Chinese soldiers.5 While Operation Ripper did not decimate the enemy completely, it successfully drove them out of Seoul and further up north. In this respect, it was able to attain some degree of success for the United Nations efforts during the Korean War. The success of the operation was able to change the lackluster performance of the troops. There are those who argued that the outcome turned the tides of the war. In the political front, Operation Ripper convinced policymakers

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Incident Response, Business continuity, and Disaster Recovery Plans Research Proposal

Incident Response, Business continuity, and Disaster Recovery Plans - Research Proposal Example It thus becomes imperatively necessary to provide evidence and research based guidelines for effective implementation of incident response and disaster recovery plans for organizations which have employed the use of information and communication technology in their operations. It is due to the increasing incidents of attacks to information systems and the related security challenges that it is necessary for organizations to achieve maximum precautionary plans for response and recovery from incidences without having any significant impact on the business processes. The lack of effective implementation of incident response and recovery plans has been caused by lack of specific approach and strategies for establishment and application of these plans within the organization. This paper presents a case study proposal with a view of enabling organizations to implement effective response and recovery plans for business continuity. Nonetheless, it is necessary to note that there are cost and time implications which are associated with the implementation of the incident response and recovery plans for the advantage of business continuity. ... In the light of this argument therefore, it is suitable that business organizations are guided in the proper planning of the response approaches and recovery process in cases of attacks to their information systems. The benefit of proper and organized response and recovery plan for various attacks to organizational computer systems is the reduction of the costs and time related to failure of continuity of business processes (Haddow, Bullock and Coppola, 2011). All organizations require an information system policy which provides the step by step procedure for response to attacks of the system and the recovery from possible attacks (Kuonqui, 2006). Without such a policy, businesses are likely to fail in attaining recovery from various attacks of their information systems (Jennex, 2012).Organizations often have incident response teams which help them to effectively manage various attacks to their information systems (Omar, Alijani and Mason, 2011). These teams are accredited with the r ole of following standard procedure for response and recovery from incidences. In this regard, the teams a significant function of protecting the organization from loss of the continuity of business processes (Kuonqui, 2006). It is notable that regardless of the postulation of information system policies as the solution to the response and recovery from incidences, there is no clear presentation of the contents of such polities. Moreover, the incident response team composition has not been defined clearly. This can be attributed to unprofessional response to attacks of organizations’ information systems (West, 1996). Additionally, actual steps which should be taken in the procedural response to an incidence and recovery from such incidences have not been provided in a distinct

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Roman Polanski's Macbeth Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Roman Polanski's Macbeth - Research Paper Example He has been able to visually entrance the viewers into a universe of natural elements of rain and mist, gray dawns and clammy dusks, as well as transport them to an era where hoof-beats and trumpets were the only sounds that emanated from the streets of a European town. (Anderegg, M.) Polanski had a simple vision in mind while executing the movie; he wanted to make the character of Macbeth know what his actions would ultimately serve him and he has been able to deliver every character, even Macduff, with great justice. Every single person within the film seems to have been pushed by some or the other circumstance bequeathed upon them and thus every scene becomes motivated with several ideas that make the movie so enthralling to watch. A number of critics therefore say that since this film is actually an original take on the tragedy and not an interpretation of Shakespeare’s dialogues, it should rightfully called ‘Polanski’s Macbeth’. (Ebert, Roger) Many state that this film is one of the most pessimistic pieces of art made by Polanski and his final ending of having crowned another king adds to this suspicion. He has taken very few liberties with Shakespeare’s work and has aimed at orchestrating the visual content in order to transform it into a move goer’s delight while tampering with the realizations that people have while watching the film on screen. This is primarily how Polanski’s personal creative visualization sets him apart from other directors. He has also aimed to increase the roles of certain characters within the film who he feels did not get much leverage when Shakespeare wrote the play. For example, in the fifth scene, he has placed a great deal more importance on Lady Macbeth by increasing her presence on screen. This further helps to add continuity to the film as well as adds to building a sense of horror among the other characters and events that take place during the course of the film. Polanski is also

Friday, August 23, 2019

Night, mother by Marsha Norman Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Night, mother by Marsha Norman - Research Paper Example Basing on the plot, we can’t but consider a â€Å"Night, motherâ€Å" to be a dramatic writing. Jessie is so exhausted and upset, her life is so terrible that she considers death to be the blessing. She just wants â€Å"to rest† and the only place she can find calm and rest is another world. Jessie simply can’t see the reasons to live further, she can’t see anything in her life that could hold her to live. Thus her decision seems to be easy to take. â€Å"Jessie knows she could choose to live rather than to die, but she lacks the appetite for the choice† (Burkman). At the same time, we can admit that Jessie’s actions can be motivated by the desire to revenge her mother. Thus, we should also analyze Jessie’ s nature. From this point of view she seems not to be an unhappy victim, but an unforgiving creature. Here Jessie seems to be selfish as she made her mother go through very difficult ninety minutes. Moreover, she warned her about h er intentions and this seems to be done deliberately to make her suffer. We can admit that an unhappy woman parted from her beloved husband, suffering from illness, just turn into a neurotic creature that needs revenge. Really, suicides are never committed only because of despair, the motivation is usually closely connected with the desire to revenge. Thus, we can assume that manipulation is the motivation of Jessie, her main focus. Actually, her mother deserves that. Her mother is too childish, she concentrated her attention only on her own wishes. â€Å"â€Å"Mama hums a tune as she stretches to reach the cupcakes in a cabinet in the kitchen. She can’t see them, but she can feel around for them, and she’s eager to have one, so she’s working pretty hard at it. This may be the most serious exercise Mama ever gets† (Norman 9)†. She is so self-centered that can’t notice the state of her daughter and Jessie can’t find a key to her heart. The dialogues held by a mother and her daughter are very important in the play. A spectator can learn much from these dialogues. By means of different phrases mother and daughter try to reach their goals. Jessie tries to give her mother hints about her real intentions by specifying the locations of different household items: "I asked you if you wanted that swimming towel and you said you didn't" (Norman 19). This was daughter’s answer to the mother’s question that was asked to reveal her intentions. By means of such phrases with hidden sense Jessie manipulates her mother that is why some critics think that Jessie’s main intention was to manipulate. If she simply said: â€Å"mom, I am going to commit suicide†, it would not have such a result. She makes her mother afraid and worried and this is her decision as she wants her mother finally to pay attention to her and her problems. She is exhausted because she feels outcast and left alone with her

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Risk Management Paper Essay Example for Free

Risk Management Paper Essay I interviewed James Alviar RN, the Coordinator of Risk Management at my current place of employment the Queens Medical Center West Oahu. I asked him if there were any current risk management issues at our facility that we could discuss, but he said all current issues were confidential and he could not divulge any information to me. Instead, James pointed me in the generic direction of hospital falls that is a nationwide risk management issue and also pertains to us at Queens Medical Center. This paper will be discussing risk managements role, what falls are, how falls are addressed, how risk management would remedy the problem, and how the similar situation is discussed at another facility. Queens Health Systems Risk Management (Risk Management) serves the Queens Health Systems (QHS) by developing and applying an integrated program for the preservation of QHSs capital assets and resources. The role of the Risk Management Department is to plan, direct, and coordinate the risk management and insurance function of Queens Medical Center, subject to and consistent with the Queens Health Services Mission Statement, policy and procedures, guidelines and applicable laws. Risk management is a process with four major components: identification, assessment, mitigation, and monitoring. Risk management addresses many issues that include patient safety, potential medical questions or errors, federal regulations, and legislation impacting healthcare. At Queens Medical Center, there are two options to file an event report. The employee may submit an event report anonymously or log onto the hospital intranet and utilize the RLs Risk Management software. The software is an easy step by step program for writing a thorough incident report to be submitted to Risk Management. The purpose of the occurrence report is to: Assist in identifying potential liability issues, facilitating appropriate corrective or remedial measures. To develop only information for investigation,  evaluation, and a final disposition of the reported incident. The information collected will provide management with a means of analyzing risk and quality levels. Fulfill QHSs internal reporting requirements, regulatory requirements, or insurance carriers requirements or legal obligation. Once the Risk Management department gets the report, they determine whether the situation should be investigated. If the situation needs to be examined, other departments are called upon to review the case. The other departments are but not exclusive to Falls Prevention and Protection Committee/Patient Safety, Department Managers and their nurses, Risk Managers, Human Resources, and Patient Advocate. Follow-up reports will be completed within three weeks, unless circumstances require a quicker response. I visited a smaller 57-bed hospital located central on the island to serving the residents of Central Oahu and the North Shore. Their incident reports are submitted on a form requiring the following information: How, when (date and time) and where the incident or offense took place The names of any injured persons and witnesses The nature and location of any injury or damage arising out of the incident or offense If a security report was made, a forwarded copy is required. If an incident report is written up, it would be submitted to the Risk Management where it would be reviewed. An investigation begins with a meeting with the department manager of the unit where the event occurred. If the incident was a fall, the incident is investigated to see if the ultimate cause of the fall was physiological or environmental. If the patient fell for physiological reasons, a plan of care is initiated. If it were an environmental reason like a loose handrail, they would be repaired immediately. Specifically to this paper, we will focus on patient falls. Patient falls are ubiquitous. According to the American College Of Surgeons National Trauma Data Bank 2013 Annual Report (2013), the highest mechanism of injury by region are falls with a total of 338,805 reported cases and with the second highest mechanism of injury from motor vehicle injury at a total of 234,164 reported cases. A patients fall is an unintended descend to the floor that may or may not result in any injury to the patient. A fall is when a patient lands on a surface where you would not expect to find the patient. There are many risk factors associated with falls such as:  Physiological reasons (changes in blood pressure, Parkinsons, arthritis, neuropathy, vision problems ) Environmental reasons (wet floor, rugs without non-skid backing, poor lighting) Adverse effects of medications An assisted fall is when a staff member witnesses a patients fall and attempts to minimize the impact of descend. Many patient falls occurring during hospital encounters may cause little or no harm but some can result in serious and even possibly life-threatening consequences for many patients such as hip fractures and head trauma. Even when a fall does not lead to death, it can require prolonged hospitalization. Some could suffer disability, loss of function, and lose their independence or premature death. â€Å"Patient falls in hospitals are a common and often preventable adverse event. Nurses routinely conduct fall risk assessment on all patients, but communication of fall risk status and tailored interventions to prevent falls is variable at best.† (Hurley, Dykes, Carroll, 2009). When reporting a fall, the event report should be submitted as soon as possible after the event is discovered. The employee who is involved or observes the incident should complete the report. Although employees can submit an incident report anonymously, submitting through the Risk Management Website in the QMC intranet using the RLs Risk Management program is preferred. Documentation should be objective, fact-based, and not include personal opinions or subjective information. If a visitor falls or is involved in the incidence, the Security Department should be called to take statements, names, and any necessary evidence, such as photographs. An incidence report should be complete including names of witnesses and any pertinent information. If a visitor is injured, he or she should be encouraged to be treated in the Emergency Department. After submitting the report, Risk Management and the designated managers are notified immediately. The responsible manager will review all submitted reports, investigate the events as indicated, and institute any necessary corrective action. If its indicated, the incident report may be presented to the Performance Improvement Coordinator for analysis. Risk management periodically reports event information to the hospital Patient Safety Committee. These activities are considered quality improvement related and a patient safety work product. The event reports are intended for  administration use. If it were a patient here should not be any reference to the incident report in the patients medical record. The event, effects on the patient, and action taken must be documented in the medical record for patient care purposes. Prevention of falls in inpatient settings requires a multidisciplinary, multifaceted approach. There is not one definitive factor that is the silver bullet in preventing falls. Even though hospitals have devoted quality improvement and research efforts to prevent falls, patient falls consistently compose the largest single category of reported incidents in hospitals. (Rowe, 2013). It is important that hospitals maintain a safe and effective environment to prevent or limit falls and/or fall-related injuries by patients, visitors, and staff. Departments such as Risk Management, Falls Prevention and Patient Safety, and Patient Advocate were created to help maintain a hospital’s safe, healing environment. References American College of Surgeons National Trauma Data Bank 2013 Annual Report. (2013). Retrieved from Hurley, A., Dykes, P., Carroll, D. (2009). Fall Tip : validation of icons to communicate fall risk status and tailored interventions to prevent patient falls. Studies in health technology and informatics, 146(), 455-459. University of Phoenix Online Library. Rowe, J. (2013, June). Preventing Patient Falls What are the Factors in Hospital Settings that Help Reduce and Prevent Inpatient Falls?, Home Health Care Management Practice, 25(3), 98-103. University of Phoenix Online Library

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Fast Food versus Homemade Food Essay Example for Free

Fast Food versus Homemade Food Essay On the other hand, home-made food has less attraction than fast food. A reason for this is that home-made food needs lots of time until it gets ready. For instance, people should wait for several hours in order to have a ready home-made meal. Another reason is that home-made food is less convenient than fast food. For example, you may not find all the ingredients you need in one grocery, yet you have to look in several groceries until you find all the ingredients. Home-made food is much healthier than fast food, and therefore, people will enjoy eating their meals without thinking of health problems. In conclusion, both fast food and home-made food have significant divergence in preparation time, convenience and quality. Fast food might be better in saving time and being more convenient, while home-made food might be better in quality. I do believe that home-made food is much better than fast food, because peoples health is The questions by Dixit saab: 1. Chule Ki Roti is better or bread. 2. Fast Food is better or customs(regular ) food. , are most relevant in todayss context. I prefer regular food but not fast food. Nutritious, hygenenic food is most important. Even in fast food if it is hygenic, nutritious it can be taken. Many a time we are forced to take fast food which is not so hygenic or nutritious ,because of the urgrncy , in place of the meals we take. The regular intake of fast foods in place of regular food is not suggestable which may kill apetite and person become weak. Inthe present day stressful jobs the person is consuming his physical, mental talents tocope with work schedules. Since body is also a machine we should give necessary inputs through food and required rest so that body functions smoothly. Occasional fast food is unaviodable. But one should take care of health by taking healthy food. Health is Wealth.

Virtual Reality A Modern Technology Media Essay

Virtual Reality A Modern Technology Media Essay Virtual reality is one of the modern technologies which was introduced a few decades back and has taken an important place in the field of technology in a very short time. it makes use of an artificial environment generated by the computer in which simulates the real environment. Besides gaining an immediate acceptance in the world of computer games, it is now being used in many fields of life including architecture, medicine, military and aviation. Scientists and researchers are expecting to explore a lot in this modern technology than what we know about it today. It is a great leap in the field of 3D and a lot of work is still under progress. The discussion below is an insight into the details of this technology, its uses, advantages, disadvantages and social impacts. The term virtual reality refers to refers to a modern technology providing an immersive, interactive experience using the three dimensional computer based graphic images. This technology creates an artificial environment with the help of computer hardware and software and is presented to the user in way which simulates the real world. The equipment makes use of a pair of special gloves, ear phones and goggles, the three of them being controlled by the computer. In this way, three of the users five senses are receiving and input from the computer. The goggles also act by detecting the eye movements of the user, thereby monitoring his actions. ORIGIN: The idea of virtual reality was first presented in 1930s, when the first fight simulator was invented by the scientists for the purpose of training the pilots. This was in an attempt to prepare them for the actual flight environment before being able to fly a real fighter plane. The invention got improvement in 1965, when Ivan Sutherland, an American, presented his theory of developing a portable virtual world using two tiny television sets, one meant for each eye. His invention worked, but to a very basic level. The images were rough and not clear. Another problem was the weight of the helmet used. It was quite heavy and needed to be supported from the ceiling. But the idea has actually got its base and now needed to be improved. Scientist continued working on this idea until in 1985, Michael McGreevy, from NASA introduced a much improved version of virtual reality. It was light weighted, using motorcycle helmet with mini display screens. It was also provided with the special sensors which were used to detect movements with the help of sensitive computer technology. Finally, during 1986, the invention got its final touch when a computer games programmer named Jaron Lanier introduced a new glove for virtual reality. In this way took the modern form in which we look it today. (Virtual Reality, 2004) TYPES OF VIRTUAL REALITY: There are three main types of virtual reality technology: The first one uses a helmet, ear phones and a pair of special gloves or joy sticks controlled by a computer and assisted by special sound effects and graphic images. The second one makes use of the video cameras. These cameras track the image of the participant in an artificially created virtual world. The participant can even move the objects in this world using virtual technology. The third type makes use of the three dimensional images. The screen used is shaped in a curve. This makes the images closer to the real world. (Nigel W. John, Joanna Leng (2001). CATEGORIES: There are six categories in which virtual reality can be displayed: Desktop displays, Head-mounted displays, Arm-mounted displays, Single screen displays, Surround screen displays and Volumetric displays. (Nigel W. John, Joanna Leng (2001). The head mounted displays are among the most widely used displays for virtual reality. In this device, a pair of display screens is placed right in front of the users eyes. These screens are attached to a helmet which the user wears. The arm mounted displays resemble a pair of binoculars mounted on an articulated arm. The user visualizes the virtual world by means of lenses. His virtual environment is controlled by his movements at an arms length and range of motion. Single screen displays use the Immersive Workbench products. These products mostly make use of a tabletop metaphor where the virtual objects give an impression of lying on the table top. Other types of single screen displays make use of a window metaphor. In this kind of display the image seems to be appearing in a large window opened into a virtual space. Another sort of display is known as CAVE, where the viewer sees the images in the form of multiple screens surrounding him as if he is present inside a large cube. The viewer can explore the virtual world by moving inside the cube. (Nigel W. John, Joanna Leng (2001). USES: Virtual reality is now being used in many professions including architecture, meteorology, military, medical and molecular studies. 1. Architecture. Virtual reality has been now used for long in the field of architecture. It has been used to establish the models of buildings before the construction is started. It has also proved to be helpful to determine how a building may have collapsed and to provide improvements in reconstructing a damaged building. 2. Weather Forecast. Virtual reality has also been used in the weather forecast profession by simulating the images with the data collected from the satellites and radars. 3. Military Training. Now virtual reality has officially been declared a part of the U.S military training. They make use of the environments created using virtual reality in whole rooms where soldiers are provided different experiences. These include the war fields as well as different exercises. 4. Cancer Chemotherapy. Another remarkable use of virtual reality in medical field is as a treatment for the cancer patients. Chemotherapy is a painful procedure for most of the patients, yet it is necessary as many malignant cancers cant be treated but their progression can be stopped by the chemotherapy treatment. It has been shown that if the chemotherapy is provided to these patients while they indulge themselves in some activity using virtual world, the pain felt is quite less that that experienced without it. Many chemotherapy centers are now making use of this technology. It is especially true in case of children suffering with cancerous lesions requiring chemotherapy. They feel the procedure less painful if they are allowed to play games or perform any other activity using virtual world and receiving the chemotherapy at the same time. Researchers explain this by the fact that three of the users senses become occupied while using the virtual world. These include, vision, hearing and touch. Thus the brain is actually distracted from the painful event being carried out. Images also play quite an important role in this treatment. The patient is given the option to select any image of his/her choice, like walking on a beach, or visiting an art gallery or performing deep sea diving etc. 5. Molecular Biology. The molecular biology is also making use of virtual reality in order to study the molecular and cellular structures. It enables the scientists to visit small sections of a molecule and study its properties. 6. Medical Studies. Virtual reality is now being used in medical studies as well. By using virtual reality, the medical students and even doctors can learn complex medical procedures without risking anyones life. In medical field virtual reality has been used in diagnosing various diseases using the images provided by other scans and then merging them using medical technology. (eHow, 2010) 7. Driving Lessons. In many countries now virtual reality has been used for driving tests as well. Apart from the actual on-road driving test, the candidates have to take a virtual reality based driving test as well which simulates the real environment. 8. Disabled Children. Virtual reality has also proven itself to be a blessing for the disabled children. A child who a wheel chair for moving needs around can gain an insight of many of the places which he cannot otherwise visit. He can select the images or environment of choice and go to the virtual world for flight, diving, walking, fighting, driving or many other activities. In this regard it is a great blessing for the bed ridden or wheel chair bound children or individuals. (itgs, 2010) ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES: The main advantages of virtual reality are as follows: Virtual reality provides the diverse types of data available in instant forms. It provides images from many different points of views. It is able to demonstrate the non-visible data to the user like in case of geochemistry. Allows a person to visit the places normally inaccessible to individuals. Provides an experience which can be repeated and revised. It can cover the education and knowledge related to almost all fields of life. Even children as well as adults can get benefit from it. It provides information in an interesting manner preventing the user from getting bored. (Weili Qiu, Tom Hubble, 2006). Virtual Reality 9 A remarkable research being carried out now a day is an attempt to make virtual reality usable by the blind persons in order to enable them to face the real world challenges using modern technology. Although the development of a virtual world can be considered as a great leap in the modern technology, yet a lot needs to be still done in this field. Given below is a chart displaying the possible harmful health effects of virtual reality: (Bing Images, 2010). The progress may be considered as slow mainly because of its complex technology. Other disadvantages include: This technique uses the computer visualization and digital techniques, yet it does not present the true three dimensional natures of objects. Although it is very close to reality, yet is unable to provide the feelings of touch, smell etc. It is still not as beneficial as being really in a field. Visiting a website using virtual reality is difficult and hindered by many factors like the network access, load on network and number of connections etc. Many websites accessed using virtual reality are ephemeral and not permanent. Yet needs much improvement regarding the teaching environment. The user may get lost over different websites, thereby increasing the problem of time management. (Weili Qiu, Tom Hubble, 2006). Some users complain of nausea and vomiting by an excessive and continuous use of virtual reality technology. CAN VIRTUAL WORLD REPLACE THE REAL EXPERIENCE? Virtual world is although quite close to the real world yet it is still unable to replace the feelings of a real world. As an example, the virtual reality technology is now being used for military training as well. But a soldier actually knows that he is not going to get any harm from any bullet coming from an unknown origin or a surprising attack. These feelings can only be experienced while being in an actual war field where all of a soldiers instincts are fully active in order to prevent him from any unknown danger, as he knows that it is real and he can even loose his life if he gets distracted from this actual environment. (Science Clarified, 2010) Similarly, it was found many years back that the pilots trained by using the flight simulators make mistakes while flying the actual plane. This occurs because of the actual differences found between the virtual and the real world. As for example, a flight simulator is unable to present the affects of simulation that a pilot feels during an actual flight. Thus, when he gets into a real flight, he faces confusion while experiencing the new sensation. Yet, this is a temporary problem and is resolved by allowing the pilots trained by flight simulators to fly a plane, only after twenty four hours have passed. These problems are although temporary, but they have raised questions about whether a long term use of virtual reality able to bring about permanent changes, especially in children, whose brains are still under developing stage and can easily be modified as compared to the grown ups. Some psychologists believe that a long term and frequent use of virtual reality is going to change the way, people are used to perceive the real world. According to some psychiatrists, a prolonged use of virtual world can make people avoid real life problems instead of trying to solve them. WORLDWIDE ACCEPTANCE: Although virtual reality technology can be still described to be in its initial stages, yet there are now about 61,000 commercial companies all over the world which are using the virtual reality technology to produce different products. Even at this basic stage, now virtual reality has become a part of the educational training at about 3,600 educational institutes all over the world. (authorSTREAM, 2010) There can be no doubt in saying this that the use of virtual reality has now increased to a great extent than the time when it was introduced initially, all over the world. Given below is a graph showing an increase in the use of virtual reality over the period of years. (Google images, 2010) CONCLUSION: Virtual reality can be described as one of the most important inventions of the modern world. Initially when computer was invented, it did not have much uses. With time, many improvements were made and computer started taking an important place at offices, homes and industries. Development of internet was a remarkable addition and it made the computer a necessity for every work place as well as homes. Likewise virtual reality was developed initially with a very basic knowledge. But now, it has started taking an important place at many work places especially those professions which are related to computer and technology. Still studies are being carried out in order to make further improvements in it, and we can predict its importance in the upcoming time mainly because of the reason that the virtual reality enables a person to visit any place or environment where it is sometimes practically impossible to go in person. One can visit the internal body, the space, the molecular structure s, deep sea, buildings, sky, planets or whatever one can think of. Science is amazing and the computer world is giving the mankind an experience of a totally new world which could not be imagined some decades back. Thus, virtual reality can be easily described as one of those inventions of science, which carry a great elasticity in them and with the research work going on in this field, we can hope to get even better results expected to bring great changes in almost every field using computer technology.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Ferdinand Magellan :: essays research papers

Ferdinand Magellan was born in 1480, in a stone farm house in Portugal. His father's name was Dom Ruy Magellan, and his mother's name was Donha Alda De Mesquite. His father was a Portuguese nobleman and owned a large amount of land. He was also a sheriff, an honorary position awarded for distinguished service to the crown.Ferdinand's brother was named Diago De Sousa, a name he took from his wealthy grandmother, his sister was named Isabel Magellan. His family seemed to care about each other and respected one another. His family owned cows, sheep, hogs, and goats and fields of wheat, rye, corn and vineyards full of grapes. Ferdinand and his brother and sister had to help the tenants (people that rented and farmed the land), raise the animals and harvest the crops. Ferdinand went to school at a monastery. Both his parents died when Ferdinand was only ten years old. At the age of twelve, he was sent to live at the court of Queen Leonora and John II of Portugal. His older brother, Diago, had gone to court two years earlier. His cousin, named Francisco Serrano also twelve years old, came at the same time as Ferdinand did. At court Ferdinand learned music, dance, horsemanship and how to handle weapons, in addition to academic subjects such as reading, writing and religion. Also he learned algebra, geometry, astronomy and navigation. After he had worked at court for a few years, he started checking the supplies for the ships going to India. This was work for the India House, run by the monarchy. India house was the agency for overseas trade. Magellan heard reports of new discoveries brought back by returning ships. It was here that Magellan learned practical aspects of navigation from the sailors and by helping outfit the ships he learned about rigging, repairing, armaments and supplies.In 1495, John II died, and his brother-in-law, Duke Manuel became king. Duke Manuel did not like Ferdinand, so even though Ferdinand wanted to sail, it was not until 1505 that he finally got his chance. In 1505 Magellan sailed to India under the leadership of Captain General Almeida, and set up Naval Bases along the way. They set their first base up at Kilwa, and the chief there had promised to be nice to sailors coming through, and said each time sailors came through, he promised to give some gold to the King of Portugal.

Monday, August 19, 2019

The Life of Frederick Douglass :: American History Slavery Narratives Essays

The Life of Frederick Douglass Frederick Douglass was born in Tuckahoe, Maryland, near Hillsborough. He doesn’t know for sure of his age, he has seen no proof and his master will not inform him. Most masters prefer for their slaves to stay ignorant. He believes that he was around twenty-seven and twenty-eight when he began writing his narrative - he overheard his master say he was about seventeen years of age during 1835. His mother, Harriet Bailey, was separated from him when he was an infant and she died when he was seven years old. Frederick’s father was a white man who could have been his master but he never found out. Education was of utmost importance in his life. He received his first lesson while living with Mr. and Mrs. Auld. Sophia Auld, Frederick’s "mistress", was very humane to him and spent time teaching him the A, B, C’s. After he mastered this, she assisted him in spelling three and four letter words. At this point in his lesson Mr. Auld encountered what his wife was doing for Frederick and forbid her to continue. He believed that "if you give a nigger an inch, he will take an ell" and continuing with "learning would spoil the best nigger in the world". The masters felt that an ignorant slave formed a choice slave and any beneficial learning would damage the slave and therefore be futile to his master. His next step on the road to success was during his seven years living with Master Hugh’s family. Frederick would make friends with as many white boys as he possibly could on the street. His new friends would be transformed into teachers. When he could, Frederick carried bread on him as a means of trade to the famished kids for knowledge. He would also carry a book anytime he had an errand to run. The errand would be completed quickly, allowing extra study time. When Frederick was working in Durgin and Bailey’s ship-yard he would notice timber marked with various letters. He soon discovered how the letters matched the type of wood and the names of these letters. Any boy he met that could write he would challenge them to a writing contest. Frederick would use the letters he recently learned and told the child to challenge that. He then copied the Italics in Webster’s Spelling Book until he knew them well.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

International Development in Developing Countries Essay -- Developing

International Development in Developing Countries â€Å"†¦increasing international trade and financial flows since the Second World War have fostered sustained economic growth over the long term in the world’s high-income states. Some with idle incomes have prospered as well, but low-income economies generally have not made significant gains. The growing world economy has not produced balanced, healthy economic growth in the poorer states. Instead, the cycle of underdevelopment more aptly describes their plight. In the context of weak economies, the negative effects of international trade and foreign investments have been devastating. Issues of trade and currency values preoccupy the economic policies of states with low-income economies even more than those with high incomes because the downturns are far more debilitating.1† The topic that I have selected for my chapter evaluation essay is that of â€Å"Economic Development†. This paragraph above is the best summary of the chapter’s contents. In this chapter the author discusses the influence of development on the three worlds of countries. These worlds are benchmarks set to assess countries economic states relative to each other. When looking through the topic of development, two drastically different ways to assess it arise. The majority of the western world looks at development in terms of per capita GNP. This means each country is evaluated on a level playing field, comparing the production of each country in economic value. Opposite this style of evaluation is that of the alternative view, which measures a country’s development on its ability to fulfill basic material and non-material needs. Cultural ties are strong in this case as most of the population does not produce for wealth but merely survival and tradition. Throughout the chapter the text exerts more emphasis on the economical evaluation of a country's development rather than the alternative method. It begins to branch off quickly into the classification of countries deriving new topics all relating back to the economical approach. Beginning this discussion is the topic of underdevelopment. Many factors can lead to the underdevelopment of a country. The most common sign of underdevelopment is that of a â€Å"Dual Economy†, this takes place when a â€Å"small modern elite and middle class make up about 20-30% of a country’... overabundance of information all applicable to the topic. My feeling was that such an overwhelming load of facts and systems directed me away from the most important facts of the chapter. Its imperative that the student understands the small scale relationship to economic development. Therefore my attempt was to highlight the main topics of the chapter and relate them to the reader to provoke intrest and thought towards many of these important life changing situations that occur everyday. If one can see past all the theories primarily and see the cause and effects behind them, they’re appreciation for the ideas stated in the theories. Bibliography: 1. Global perspectives/ Kelleher, Ann./ Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Prentice Hall, c1999. 2. The Globalization Of World Politics/Baylis,John & Smith, Steve/Oxford University Press Inc., New York, c2001. 3. Poverty And Development/Allen, Tim & Thomas, Alan/ Oxford University Press, Milton Keynes, U.K., c2000. 4. Globalization And International Relations Theory/Clark, Ian/Oxford University Press Inc., New York, c1999. 5. Civilizing World Politics/Albert,Mathias/Rowman & Littlefield Inc. Lanham, Maryland, c2000.